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Forces of Change. From Republicanism to Democracy The Age of Jackson “Government reflected the belief in the Equality of Man . ” Degler. Essential Question:. Champion of the “Common Man”?. “King” Andrew?. OR.

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forces of change

Forces of Change

From Republicanism to Democracy

The Age of Jackson

“Government reflected the belief in the Equality of Man.”



Essential Question:

Champion of the “Common Man”?




"Andrew Jackson, I am given to understand, was a patriot and a traitor. He was one of the greatest of generals, and wholly ignorant of the art of war. A writer brilliant, elegant, eloquent, and without being able to compose a correct sentence, or spell words of four syllables. The first of statesmen, he never devised, he never framed a measure. He was the most candid of men, and was capable of the profoundest dissimulation. A most law-defying, law-obeying citizen. A stickler for discipline, he never hesitated to disobey his superior. A democratic aristocrat. An urbane savage. An atrocious saint.“

—James Parton, “Father of the American Biography”, 1830’s


What were the



in the 19c?


Changes of Andrew Jackson’s Presidency

  • President is viewed as a representative of the people.
  • He is seen as an ”expression of the democratic spirit” of them as well
  • Shown by Jackson’s incredible use of the veto: doing the will of the people
  • End to only the rich having a stake-in-society

Belief that the common man was capable of uncommon achievements.

  • new belief that all classes can participate fully
Why increased Democratization?

White male suffrage given to all.

Spoils system/Rotation in Office

Rise of Third Parties

Two-party system returned in the 1832 election:

Dem-Reps  Natl. Reps.(1828)  Whigs (1832)  Republicans (1854)

Democrats (1828)


Party nominating committees.

1790 to 1828

Caucus---small group of individuals who would choose a candidate

1828 to 1900

Convention---members from the political parties nominate a candidate. Eliminated, “King Caucus”

Current System Used

Direct Primary---allow registered voters to participate in choosing a candidate

  • Voters chose their state’s slate of Presidential electors.

Which changes of Jacksonian Democracy would you consider to be positive?

Which would be negative?

Which changes are still with us today?






Tariff Battles

  • Tariff of 1816  on imports of cheap textiles.
  • Tariff of 1824  on iron goods and more expensive woolen and cotton imports.
  • Tariff of 1828  higher tariffs on imported raw materials [like wool & hemp].
    • Supported by Jacksonians to gain votes from farmers in NY, OH, KY.
    • The South alone was adamantly against it.
      • As producers of the world’s cheapest cotton, it did not need a protective tariff.
      • They were negatively impacted  American textiles and iron goods [or the taxed English goods] were more expensive!

The Webster-Hayne Debate

  • Federal government versus State’s right debate continues!
  • Hayne mentions nullification.”

Sen. Daniel Webster[MA]

Sen. Robert Hayne[SC]

the nullification crisis
The Nullification Crisis
  • Jackson favored state’s rights—but not if it would lead to disunion
  • Tariff of 1832 was passed which further upset the South
  • South Carolina chose to follow VP John C. Calhoun’s (SC) nullification theory
  • 1832-SC held a special convention to nullify the Tariff of Abominations and a new Tariff passed in 1832
    • States that both Tariffs are unconstitutional
    • SC passed a resolution forbidding the collection of Tariffs
jackson s response
Jackson’s response
  • Response
    • Told Secretary of War to prepare for military action
    • Persuaded congress to pass a Force Bill giving the president authority to take military action in SC
    • Issued a proclamation to the people of SC stating that nullification and disunion were treason
    • Jackson opened the door for compromise by suggesting to congress that they lower the tariff
    • Did not send in federal troops
    • SC postponed nullification and later formally rescinded it


  • Soon after the creation of the USA, many Cherokee felt that the only way to save their land, was by following Jefferson’s advice
  • They created an alphabet and learned how to read and write
  • They farmed and set up towns with meetings and elected mayors
the cherokee constitution
The Cherokee Constitution

We,  the people of the Cherokee Nation,  in National Convention assembled, in order to establish justice, insure tranquility, promote the common welfare, and secure to ourselves and our posterity the blessings of freedom acknowledging, with humility and gratitude, the goodness of the Sovereign Ruler of the Universe in permitting us so to do, and imploring His aid and guidance in its accomplishment--do ordain and establish this Constitution for the government of the Cherokee Nation.


Indian Removal

  • What was Jackson’s Goal for the land?
  • 1830  Indian Removal Act
    • Cherokee Nation v. GA (1831)
    • Worcester v. GA (1832)
  • Jackson:John Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it!

An 1832 Cartoon:


Why was Jackson referred to as King?

Is this accurate? Why, Why not?


Should Jackson be criticized for pushing the Indians off their land? Or is he forgiven since this was a commonly held opinion of the Native American people at that time?

  • Did Jackson contradict his own beliefs in the Nullification Crisis? Or was this necessary for the preservation of the country?
the second bank of the u s
The Second Bank of the U.S.
  • Name is misleading—it was a private bank that was granted a charter by the government
  • It was a storehouse for government/public funds and provided stability for the ups and downs of the economy
  • President was Nicholas Biddle who ran the bank well; however many felt that he served the interests of the wealthy
  • Jackson felt this went against his idea of democracy—he also felt that some of the branches supported Adams in 1828
the bank and the election of 1832
The Bank and the Election of 1832
  • Biddle was pushing for a bill to renew the Bank’s Charter
  • Jackson viewed this as an attempt to block his re-election!
    • Biddle & his associates preferred Clay.
    • Clay was Jackson’s chief political rival
      • Remember the Election of 1824?
      • The Veto of the Maysville Road Project?
    • Jackson vetoes the bill on the grounds that the bank was unconstitutional (?)

NicholasBiddle[an arrogant aristocrat from Philadelphia]


1832 Election Results

  • Jackson is supported by many in the country who saw the bank as favoring the wealthy
  • Clay’s power play failed, and Jackson wins re-election in a landslide
  • Jackson feels this is his mandate to quickly destroy the Bank

The “Monster” Is Destroyed!

    • Jackson withdraws federal funds from the BUS and puts them in “pet banks” (state banks that he favored)
    • He fired two Treasury Secretary’s and is censured by the Congress
  • 1836  the charter expired.
  • 1841  the bank went bankrupt!
the specie circular 1836
The Specie Circular (1836)
  • Due to Jackson’s pet banks, and speculation in western lands, rampant inflation affected the country
  • Jackson decides to issue the SC
    • Required future purchases of federal lands be made only in gold or silver
  • Jackson’s goal is to curb land speculation and slow inflation

Results of the Specie Circular

  • Banknotes lose their value.
  • Land sales plummeted.
  • Banks stop lending money.
  • Businesses began to fail.
  • Unemployment rose.

The Panic of 1837!


The Panic of 1837 Hits Everyone!


  • After 8 years as President I have only two regrets: That I have not shot Henry Clay, or hanged John C. Calhoun.