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Before the Snap. Referee, Umpire, Linesman, Line Judge, and Back Judge. All: Count the players R: Count the offense U: Count the offense (as they break the huddle) L / LJ: Count the team players on your sideline BJ: Count the defense All: Use fist signal at shoulder for 11 or fewer players.

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referee umpire linesman line judge and back judge
Referee, Umpire, Linesman,Line Judge, and Back Judge
  • All: Count the players
    • R: Count the offense
    • U: Count the offense (as they break the huddle)
    • L / LJ: Count the team players on your sideline
    • BJ: Count the defense
  • All: Use fist signal at shoulder for 11 or fewer players
referee umpire linesman and line judge
Referee, Umpire, Linesman,and Line Judge
  • Offense breaks huddle with 12 or more players (3-5-2-c)
    • Blow whistle immediately (dead-ball foul)
  • Quick rush to scrimmage line to create defensive disadvantage
quick rush to line of scrimmage 3 5 2 e
Quick Rush to Line of Scrimmage(3-5-2-e)
  • Key requirements:
    • Process of substitution or simulated substitution
    • Quick rush to line of scrimmage by offense
    • Obvious attempt to create defensive disadvantage
    • Game officials will not permit snap until B has made substitutions
    • Team B must react promptly with substitutions
umpire linesman and line judge
Umpire, Linesman, andLine Judge
  • False start, encroachment, offside
  • Legal snap
  • Interference with ball or snapper
  • Abrupt actions by defensive players on line of scrimmage to create false start
  • Offensive lineman more than 7 yards from middle lineman
  • Backs outside the tackle position or in motion
false start 7 1 4
False Start (7-1-4)
  • Feigning a charge
  • Simulating the beginning of a play
  • Lineman between snapper and end or lineman 50-79 moving hand(s) after placing hand(s) on or near the ground
    • Two ways for lineman to be restricted:
      • Wear a number 50-79 anywhere on the line
      • Wear any number and be positioned between snapper and end of line
legal snap 2 23
Legal Snap (2-23)
  • Handing or passing the ball backward from its position on the ground
  • Quick and continuous motion of hand(s)
  • Ball actually leaving the hand(s)
  • If the ball slips during backward motion, it is a backward pass and remains in play
  • Ball remains dead if the snap is not legal
interference with ball or snapper 7 1 5 a 1
Interference with Ball or Snapper(7-1-5-a-1)
  • Defensive player may not touch the ball except when the ball is moved illegally (ball remains dead)
  • Defensive player may not contact or interfere with an opponent in any way before the snap
situation 1
Situation 1
  • Snapper A1 lifts the ball before backward passing it. B2 bats the ball away, and B3 recovers the ball.
  • Ruling:
  • Team A foul, illegal snap. Penalty-Five yards from succeeding spot. Team A retains possession. (A.R. 7-1-5-I)
situation 2
Situation 2
  • Snapper A1 legally begins the snap, but B2 bats the ball before A1 completes the snap, and B3 recovers the ball.
  • Ruling:
  • Team B foul and the ball is dead. Penalty-Five yards from the succeeding spot. Team A retains possession. (A.R. 7-1-5-II)
situation 3
Situation 3
  • Prior to the snap, a Team B player crosses the neutral zone and continues his charge behind a Team A lineman and directly toward the quarterback or kicker.
  • Ruling:
  • A Team B player who is on Team A’s side of the neutral zone and is moving in a direct path toward the quarterback or kicker while he is behind an offensive lineman is considered to be interfering with Team A’s formation. Penalty—Team B foul, offside. Dead ball. Five yards from succeeding spot (7-1-5-III)
abrupt actions by defensive players 7 1 5 4
Abrupt Actions by Defensive Players (7-1-5-4)
  • Key requirements:
    • Defensive player in a stationary position
    • Within one yard of the line of scrimmage
    • Quick or abrupt actions not a part of normal defensive player movement
    • Obvious attempt to cause offensive player to false start
offensive lineman more than 7 yards from middle lineman 9 1 2 e 1
Offensive Lineman More than 7 Yards from Middle Lineman (9-1-2-e-1)
  • May not block below the waist:
    • Toward the original position of the ball
    • In or behind the neutral zone
    • Within 10 yards beyond the neutral zone
backs outside the normal tackle position or in motion 9 1 2 e 2
Backs Outside the Normal Tackle Position or In Motion (9-1-2-e-2)
  • May not block below the waist:
    • Toward the original position of the ball
    • In or behind the neutral zone
    • Within 10 yards beyond the neutral zone
linesman and line judge
Linesman and Line Judge
  • Offensive line of scrimmage
  • Eligible pass receivers on your side
  • Players on/off the line of scrimmage / legal formation
  • Illegal motion
  • Illegal shift
  • Team A subs / players between 9-yard marks
  • Substitution infractions
line of scrimmage 2 21 2
Line of Scrimmage (2-21-2)
  • Team’s scrimmage line is:
    • Yard line and its vertical plane
    • Passes through the point of the ball nearest the team’s goal line
  • The area between the two scrimmage lines is the neutral zone.
  • Indicate Team A’s scrimmage line with extended foot.
eligible pass receivers 7 3 3
Eligible Pass Receivers(7-3-3)
  • Two requirements for Team A players to be eligible:
    • Number must be other than 50-79 and
    • Position on end of line, legally in the backfield, or in position to receive hand-to-hand snap (i.e. the quarterback).
on off the scrimmage line 2 27 4
On / Off the Scrimmage Line (2-27-4)
  • An ineligible pass receiver is on the line when:
    • Faces opponent’s goal line with shoulders parallel to goal line and
    • Head breaks the plane of the line through the snapper’s waistline
  • An eligible pass receiver is on the line:
    • Same as above except the shoulders may be approximately to opponent’s goal line.
  • A back is a Team A player who does not break the plane of the line through the rear-most part (other than the legs or feet) of the nearest player on the line of scrimmage.
slide27

Player 75

has an

advantage

pulling or

pass blocking

legal formation 7 1 3 b 1
Legal Formation (7-1-3-b-1)
  • When the snap starts the offensive team must have:
    • At least seven players legally on the line of scrimmage
    • The remaining players either on the scrimmage line or legally positioned as a back
  • Use extended arm signal to indicate player nearest you is a back.
illegal motion 7 1 3 b 4
Illegal Motion (7-1-3-b-4)
  • At the snap one offensive player may be in motion.
  • Not toward opponent’s goal line.
  • A lineman may not be in motion.
  • All other players stationary with no movement of feet, body, head or arms.
  • Cover man in motion away from you, but don’t ignore obvious foul.
shift and illegal shift
Shift and Illegal Shift
  • Shift defined (2-22): “A shift is a simultaneous change of position by two or more offensive players after the ball is ready for play …and before the next snap.”
  • A shift itself is not illegal.
  • Rule governing shifts (7-1-4-a): After a shift, all players of the offensive team must come to an absolute stop and remain stationary for at least one full second.
substitutes players 9 yard marks
Substitutes, Players & 9-Yard Marks
  • A Team A substitute must have been between the 9-yard marks after the ready for play and before the snap (7-1-3-a-2-a).
  • A Team A player who participated in the previous down must have been between the 9-yard marks after the previous down and before the snap (7-1-3-a-2-b).
substitutions 3 5
Substitutions (3-5)
  • No incoming substitute may enter the field or end zone while the ball is in play.
  • No player, in excess of 11, may leave the field or end zone while the ball is in play.
  • An incoming substitute must enter the field of play directly from his team area.
  • A player leaving must depart at the sideline nearest his team area.
  • A replaced player must leave immediately (leave the huddle or his position within 3 seconds).
  • Substitutes who become players must remain in the game for one play (except between periods, after a score, or charged time out.
umpire
Umpire
  • Five offensive players numbered 50-79 on the line of scrimmage.
  • Clipping zone.
  • Disconcerting defensive signals.
player numbering 1 4 2 b
Player Numbering (1-4-2-b)
  • Keys:
    • On a scrimmage down
    • At least five offensive players
    • On the line of scrimmage
    • Numbered 50-79
  • Exception: Scrimmage kick formation
scrimmage kick formation 2 15 10
Scrimmage Kick Formation(2-15-10)
  • A formation:
    • With at least one player seven yards or more behind the neutral zone,
    • No player in position to receive a hand-to-hand snap from between the snapper’s legs and,
    • It is obvious that a kick may be attempted.
player who is an exception to the 50 79 numbering rule 1 4 2 b
Player who is an exception to the 50-79 numbering rule (1-4-2-b)
  • Must be positioned on the line of scrimmage between the ends.
  • Remains an ineligible receiver until the down is over or until a legal forward pass is touched by Team B
  • Is identified as an ineligible receiver after the snapper assumes his position and touches or simulates touching the ball.
clipping 9 1 2 d
Clipping (9-1-2-d)
  • Clipping is basically an illegal block.
  • Clipping is legal:
    • When a player turns his back to a blocker who has committed himself.
    • When a player attempts to reach the runner, a fumble, a muff, a backward pass, a kick or a touched forward pass.
    • When an eligible player behind the neutral zone pushes an opponent to get to a forward pass.
    • In the legal clipping zone for a very limited time.
clipping zone 9 1 2 d
Clipping Zone (9-1-2-d)
  • A rectangular area
  • Centered in the middle offensive lineman.
  • Extending 5 yards laterally and 3 yards longitudinally in each direction.
  • The zone is intended to include both ends in a normal tight end position and extends 3 yards behind and beyond the neutral zone.
slide40

Offensive players on the line of scrimmage at the

snap may legally clip in this area for a limited time

clipping illegal in the zone
Clipping Illegal in the Zone
  • When the zone ceases to exist, that is after:
    • The ball is touched outside the area or,
    • The ball itself is outside the area after a fumble or muff from inside the area.
  • When a player on the line of scrimmage leaves the area, returns, and clips.
  • When a player in the area blocks an opponent from behind and at or below the knee.
disconcerting signals 7 1 5 a 3
Disconcerting Signals (7-1-5-a-3)
  • No defensive player shall use words or signals that:
    • Disconcert opponents preparing to put the ball in play.
    • Simulate the sound or cadence (or otherwise interfere with) offensive signals.
  • Throw flag and sound whistle immediately.
back judge
Back Judge
  • Be responsible for 25 second count, either on the field or monitor the field clock.
referee
Referee
  • Check legality of backfield formation.
  • Know eligible backs.
  • Note backs positioned outside the normal tackle position or in motion (they may not block below the waist toward the ball in or behind the neutral zone and within 10 yards of the neutral zone).
  • Watch for one second pause after shift.
  • Watch for illegal motion or false start by backs in group directly behind the ball.
  • Watch the tackle on your side.
penalty enforcement before or at the snap
Penalty Enforcement Before or at the Snap
  • Before the snap: Succeeding Spot
  • Simultaneous with snap: Previous Spot