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Bell Ringer. What are some of the qualities you think are important for a president to have?. Precedents of Presidents. Establishing what it means to be Mr. President . Lies My Teacher Told Me. Presidential Precedent. Served only two terms Accepted the title of Mr. President

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bell ringer
Bell Ringer
  • What are some of the qualities you think are important for a president to have?
precedents of presidents

Precedents of Presidents

Establishing what it means to be Mr. President

presidential precedent
Presidential Precedent
  • Served only two terms
  • Accepted the title of Mr. President
  • Created the Cabinet - Consulting of department heads in order to make decisions.
    • The cabinet has become an integral part of the "unwritten constitution."
      • Secretary of State -- Thomas Jefferson
      • Secretary of the Treasury -- Alexander Hamilton
      • Secretary of War -- Henry Knox
bill of rights
Bill of Rights
  • One of first priorities facing the new government
    • Antifederalists had sharply criticized the Constitution for not having one.
    • Many states had ratified under the condition that one be included.
  • Bill of Rights -- First ten amendments to the Constitution adopted in 1791.
judiciary act of 1789
Judiciary Act of 1789
  • Organized the Supreme Court with a chief justice (John Jay) and five associates
  • Organized federal district and circuit courts.
  • Established the office of attorney general.
    • 4th cabinet position created
proclamation of neutrality
Proclamation of Neutrality
  • Formal announcement issued by President George Washington on April 22, 1793, declaring the United States a neutral nation in the conflict between Great Britain and France that had begun with the French Revolution.
jay s and pinckney s treaties
Jay’s and Pinckney’s Treaties
  • Jay’s Treaty: Treaty with Britain; averted war and increased 10 years of peaceful trade.
  • Pinckney’s Treaty: Treaty with Spain; defined the boundaries of the United States with the Spanish colonies and guaranteed the United States navigation rights on the Mississippi River.
hamilton s financial plan
Hamilton’s Financial Plan
  • Revolution left America in severe financial debt
  • Alexander Hamilton’s economic philosophy
      • Report on Public Credit (1790)
        • Plan to shape fiscal policies of the administration to favor wealthier groups. In return, the wealthy would lend the gov't monetary & moral support; prosperity would trickle down to the masses.
      • Report on Manufactures (1791)
        • Advocated promotion of a factory system in U.S. so the nation could exploit its national resources and strengthen capitalism.
  • Hamilton’s financial plan became the cornerstone of America's financial system.
    • Strengthened the government politically as well as financially.
hamilton s financial plan1
Hamilton’s Financial Plan
  • Bank of the United States
  • Excise Taxes
  • Funding at Par
  • Assumption of State Debts
  • Tariffs
hamilton s financial plan2
Hamilton’s Financial Plan
  • Assumption of State Debt
    • Hamilton urged Congress to assume the states' debts, which would further obligate states to the federal gov't.
      • States with huge debt were delighted (esp. Mass.)
      • States with less debt or no remaining debt were unhappy
    • Compromise achieved in 1790 through a process called "logrolling"
      • "Logrolling" occurs when two opposing factions agree to vote for each other’s bills so that their own cherished bills will pass.
      • Federal government would assume all state debt
      • South would get new federal district


hamilton s financial plan3
Hamilton’s Financial Plan
  • Funding At Par
    • Purpose: Bolstering national credit
    • Function: Taking in old bonds and issuing new ones at the face value of the old bonds.
      • Many wealthy investors rushed to buy as many bonds as possible in rural areas at rock-bottom prices before news of Hamilton's plan reached countryside.
      • Many original bondholders (common people) sold unknowingly as they were often poor and desperate for immediate cash.


hamilton s financial plan4
Hamilton’s Financial Plan


  • Tariffs (customs duties) became a source of revenue for paying the debt
    • Secondary goal was to help protect infant industries.
  • Excise Taxes are taxes paid when purchases are made on a specific good (usually a luxury item)
    • Excise tax on a few domestic items incl. whiskey.


hamilton s financial plan5
Hamilton’s Financial Plan
  • Bank of the United States (BUS): A national bank, chartered for a term of twenty years; seen as necessary to stabilize and improve the nation's credit, and to improve handling of the financial business of the United States
  • Federal Treasury would deposit its surplus moneys in the bank
  • Government would print urgently needed

paper money thus providing a sound &

stable national currency.


bank of the united states
Arguments for the BUS

Loose construction –Broad interpretation of the Constitution

“elastic clause” - Provided for passing any laws "necessary & proper" to carry out the powers (implied powers)

Bank would be "necessary" to store collection of taxes & moneys from the regulation of trade, both of which were stated in the Constitution.

Arguments Against the BUS

Strict construction - strict interpretation of the Constitution

States' righters feared liberties would be jeopardized by a huge central bank.

Moneyed interests would benefit at the expense of farmers.

Federal gov't did eventually enjoy a monopoly of surplus funds

Bank of the United States
Southwestern Pennsylvania backcountry folks hard hit by Hamilton's excise tax.

Washington summoned the militia of several states resulting in 13,000-man army.

Significance: Washington's government showed another Shays’-type rebellion could not succeed under the new Constitution

Whiskey Rebellion

washington s farewell address
Washington’s Farewell Address
  • He had reluctantly accepted a second term when his friends & advisors begged him to stay -- Unanimously reelected
  • Refused to accept a third term as President
    • Set a precedent for the 2-term presidency
  • Farewell Address
    • 2/3 domestic related: Warned against evils of political parties -- partisan bitterness.
    • Warned against permanent foreign alliances (like treaty with France)
    • Isolationism became dominant U.S. foreign policy for next 100 years.


washington s farewell address1
Washington’s Farewell Address
  • Extolls the benefits of the federal government. "The unity of a main pillar in the edifice of your real independence...of your tranquility at home, your peace abroad; of your safety; of your prosperity; of that very liberty which you so highly prize."
  • Warns against the party system. "It serves to distract the Public Councils, and enfeeble the Public Administration....agitates the Community with ill-founded jealousies and false alarms; kindles the animosity of one....against opens the door to foreign influence and corruption...thus the policy and the will of one country are subjected to the policy and will of another."
  • Stresses the importance of religion and morality. "Where is the security for property, for reputation, for life, if the sense of religious obligation desert the oaths, which are the instruments of investigation in Courts of Justice?"
  • On stable public credit. "...cherish public credit. One method of preserving it is to use it as sparingly as possible...avoiding likewise the accumulation of is essential that you...bear in mind, that towards the payments of debts there must be Revenue, that to have Revenue there must be taxes; that no taxes can be devised, which are not...inconvenient and unpleasant..."
  • Warns against permanent foreign alliances. "It is our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world..."
  • On an over-powerful military establishment. "...avoid the necessity of those overgrown military establishments, which, under any form of government, are inauspicious to liberty, and which are to be regarded as particularly hostile to Republican Liberty."
political parties develop
Political Parties Develop
  • Founding Fathers in Philadelphia did not envision the existence of political parties.
    • Organized opposition seemed disloyal  and against spirit of national unity.
    • Factions had existed only over special issues: e.g. Federalists & Antifederalists. Factions were not parties.
  • By 1792-1793, two well-defined groups had crystallized:
    • Hamiltonian Federalists
    • Jeffersonian Republicans
george washington
George Washington

Dates in Office: 1789 - 1797

Nicknames: Father of Our Country

Political Party: “Federalist”

Major Events:

First President under Constitution

Neutrality Act

Judiciary Act

Jay and Pinckney’s Treaties

Hamilton’s Economic Plan

Whiskey Rebellion

bell ringer1
Bell Ringer

What was the most controversial element of Hamilton’s economic plan? What were the major arguments for and against it?

the first political parties
The First Political Parties
  • Believed in government by the upper classes
  • Distrusted the common people.
  • Supported a strong central government
  • Federal government should foster business, not interfere with it.
  • Pro-British in foreign policy over other powers
  • Advocated the rule of the people (average American)
  • Biggest appeal was to the middle class and the underprivileged -- yeoman farmers, laborers, artisans, and small shopkeepers.
  • Bulk of power should be retained by the states.
  • Jeffersonians themselves were primarily agrarians
  • Pro-French foreign policy




Adams Administration

  • Election of 1796 – Beats Hamilton and Jefferson, Jefferson named as VP
  • War with France
    • French Revolution – Reign of Terror
    • Quasi-War: France began seizing American merchant ships in retaliation for Jay’s Treaty and refused to meet with the American envoys
    • XYZ Affair
the xyz affair
The XYZ Affair
  • President Adams sent envoys to France to deal with the impressment issue
  • France refused to meet with them unless they paid a “tribute” (bribe)
  • Many Americans called for war over the poor treatment by the French
  • Adams negotiated with them instead, but it hurt his credibility as a powerful leader.
alien and sedition acts
Alien and Sedition Acts
  • Alien Act: Increased the amount of time to become a citizen to 14 years, trying to keep French immigrants from influencing American politics.
  • Sedition Act: Made it a crime to print anything “false, scandalous, or malicious” about the government or its officials.
  • Caused massive conflict between political parties, including an actual fight in Congress!
  • Destroyed the reputation of the Federalists
virginia and kentucky resolutions
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
  • Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
    • Written by Jefferson and Madison in response to Alien and Sedition Acts
    • Declared that the States had the right to nullify (void) unconstitutional laws passed by Congress
  • Based on the Compact (social contract) Theory
    • Federalists argued that the people, not the states, had made the original compact -- Argued Supreme Court, not states, could nullify laws.
  • Significance: Later used by southerners to support nullification and ultimately secession prior to Civil War.
john adams
John Adams

Dates in Office: 1797-1801

Nicknames: The Colossus of Independence, His Rotundity

Political Party: Federalist

Major Events:


XYZ Affair

Alien and Sedition Acts

Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions

Midnight Judges

bell ringer2
Bell Ringer

What events/characteristics caused John Adams to be a one-term president?

thomas jefferson

Thomas Jefferson

America’s 3rd President

election of 1800
Election of 1800

“Whisper Campaign” by Adams:

  • Jefferson had robbed a widow and her children of a trust fund
    • False
  • Jefferson fathered numerous mulatto children
    • True-ish(Fathered a child with slave Sally Hemmings)
  • Jefferson was an athiest
    • False – he was a deist (belief that a supreme being created the universe, and that this can be determined using reason and observation of the natural world alone, without the need for either faith or organized religion)
election of 18001
Election of 1800
  • Jefferson defeats Adams
    • Most electoral support in South and West (agrarian)
    • The 3/5 Compromise gave the South more electoral votes, earning him the nickname of “the Negro President”
  • Problem: Aaron Burr and Jefferson got the same number of electoral votes for President
      • As a result of Hamilton’s support, Jefferson was named President, showing that a peaceful transfer of power could exist; the “Revolution of 1800”
revolution of 1800
Revolution of 1800
  • Jefferson emphasized unity in his inaugural address
    • “…the minority possess their equal rights, which equal law must protect, and to violate would be oppression… We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists.”
  • Led to the 12th Amendment
    • Separate ballots for Pres. and VP
changing of the guard
Changing of the Guard
  • Changes by Jefferson
    • Slashed Navy budget
    • Reduced Army
    • Pardoned seditionists
    • Reduced citizenship back to 5 years
    • Eliminated the whisky excise tax
      • Lost $1million
    • Sucessfully reduced the national debt while balancing the budget
judiciary jumble
Judiciary Jumble
  • Judiciary Act of 1801 was created by the expiring Federalists
    • Created 16 new federal judgeships and other judicial offices
    • Adams signed these in the final official hours of his presidency – “midnight judges”
    • Angered Republicans because the positions are lifetime appointments, entrenching Feds in the judiciary
  • New Republican Congress ignored the midnight appointments
chief justice john marshall
Chief Justice John Marshall
  • William Marbury learned his position as a justice of the peace in DC was being shelved by SoS James Madison and sued to have it delivered.
  • Marbury v. Madison
    • Established the policy of judicial review (Supreme Court has the power of a court to review the actions of public sector bodies in terms of their constitutionality. In some jurisdictions it is also possible to review the constitutionality of the law itself.)
    • Decisions strengthen the federal government over the states (not a view of Republicans)
the loui iana pur ha e
The loui$ianaPur¢ha$e
  • Backstory:
    • France ran out of money because of their Revolution
    • Lost its main overseas $ source (Haiti)
    • Napoleon wanted to sell the territory to fund his European Conquest
  • Jefferson offers to buy the territory and take on the debts owed the U.S. by France
  • Paid $11.25 million for 828,800 square miles
  • Criticized for breaking from his “strict constructionist” views

That's about $13 per square mile!

2 cents per acre!!


Doubles the size of the U.S.!

  • Control the Mississippi River
  • Preserve an agrarian society for future generations
a storm s a brewin in louisiana
A Storm’s A-Brewin’ in Louisiana
  • Jefferson reluctantly submitted the treaties to the Senate while privately admitting the purchase as unconstitutional.
    • Senate promptly ratified the treaty
    • Land-hungry Americans jubilantly supported the purchase
  • Ironically, Federalists criticized the deal
    • Argued for strict construction: President did not have power to purchase LA.
    • Claimed LA would cost too much especially when balancing budget was a goal
    • Real reason: worried that western lands would be loyal to Jefferson’s Republicans.
the burr conspiracy
The Burr Conspiracy
  • Aaron Burr, upset over his presidential defeat, planned to seize Mexico from Spain and create a new country to the west. He was arrested and tried for treason, but acquitted.
  • Upset at his removal from Jefferson’s second cabinet, joined a group of Federalist extremists (Essex Junto) to plot the secession of New England and New York.
  • Alexander Hamilton exposed and foiled the conspiracy.
  • Burr, already angry at Hamilton for causing his loss of the presidency in 1800, challenges Hamilton to a duel.

July 11, 1804



Yarrrr!!! Pirates!

  • Pirate ships and crews from the Barbary Coast captured merchant ships and enslaved or ransomed their crews, which provided the Muslim rulers of these nations with wealth and naval power.
  • Were known for their ruthlessness on the seas
first barbary war
First Barbary War
  • Previously, American ships had been protected by England and France, but after the Revolution, she was on her own.
  • In 1784, Congress allocated money for payment of tribute to the Barbary pirates. Unfortunately, the price demanded for these treaties far exceeded the amount that Congress had budgeted.
first barbary war1
First Barbary War
  • When Jefferson was elected, the Pasha of Tripoli demanded $225,000 from the new administration. Jefferson refused the demand. The Pasha declared war on the United States, not through any formal written documents, but by cutting down the flagstaff in front of the U.S. Consulate.
  • In response, Jefferson sent ships to defend American interests in the Mediterranean, and informed Congress.
  • Congress authorized the President to instruct the Navy to seize all vessels and goods of the Pasha of Tripoli

Results of the First Barbary War

The Marines Hymn

From the Halls of Montezuma,

To the shores of Tripoli;

We fight our country's battles

In the air, on land, and sea;

First to fight for right and freedom

And to keep our honor clean;

We are proud to claim the title

Of United States Marine.

Wearied of the blockade and raids, and an American scheme to restore the former ruler to power, the Pasha signed a treaty ending hostilities on June 4, 1805.


Foreign Flare-Ups

  • Wars between Britain and France left American ships unable to trade with either nation
  • Impressment: the forcible enlistment of sailors
  • Over 6,000 American sailors were impressed into His Majesty’s navy


  • Jefferson reasoned that if America voluntarily cut off its exports, Britain and France would be forced to stop the impressments and respect America’s rights. (Embargo Act of 1807)
  • Had harmful economic consequences
    • Northern shipping was immediately halted
    • Southern planters had surpluses of crops
  • Congress repealed the Embargo in 1809, replacing it with the far-less restrictive Non-Intercourse Act, which only forbade trade with France and England

"O Grab Me"

"Go Bar 'Em"



thomas jefferson1
Thomas Jefferson

Dates in Office: 1801-1809

Nicknames: “Long Tom,” “The Pen of the Revolution,” or “The Negro President”

Political Party: Democratic-Republican

Major Events:

Revolution of 1800

12th Amendment

Marbury v. Madison

Louisiana Purchase

Lewis & Clark expedition

First Barbary War

Embargo Act of 1807

Non-Intercourse Act

the midnight judges
The Midnight Judges
  • Midnight Judges
    • 16 last-minute Federalist appointments made by Adams
    • The new Republican Congress ignored the midnight appointments
  • Marbury v. Madison (under Chief Justice John Marshall)
    • William Marbury learned his position was being shelved and sued to have it delivered.
    • Established the policy of judicial review (Supreme Court has the power of a court to review laws and the actions of the other branches in terms of their constitutionality.)
    • Strengthened power of the federal government
the loui iana pur ha e1
The loui$ianaPur¢ha$e
  • Backstory: France is BROKE
  • Jefferson pays $11.25 million for 828,800 square miles
  • Criticized for breaking from his “strict constructionist” views

That's about $13 per square mile!

2 cents per acre!!


Doubles the size of the U.S.!

  • Control the Mississippi River
  • Preserve an agrarian society for future generations