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Chapter 2. THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE. California State Standards. 1h: most macromolecules in cells and organisms are synthesized from a small collection of simple precursor 4e: proteins can differ from one another in the number and sequence of amino acids

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chapter 2

Chapter 2

THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE

california state standards
California State Standards
  • 1h: most macromolecules in cells and organisms are synthesized from a small collection of simple precursor
  • 4e: proteins can differ from one another in the number and sequence of amino acids
  • 1b: enzymes are proteins that catalyze biochemical reactions without altering the reactions equilibrium and the activities of enzymes depend on the temperature, ionic conditions, and the pH of the surroundings
i q 1
I Q #1
  • What is an atom?
  • What are the components (parts) of an atom? Where are they found?
  • What is an element?
slide4
CHAPTER 2: THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE
  • The first job of a biologist is to understand the chemistry of life.
  • 2-1 The Nature of Matter
  • A. Atoms
  • · ___________= the basic unit of matter (has volume and mass; solid, liquid, gas, and plasma)

·Atoms are made

Atoms

subatomic particles called protons, neutrons, and electrons

carbon atom
Carbon Atom

= electrons

-

-

-

Electronegative charge

1/1840 amu

= protons

-

-

electrons travel in

regions outside the

nucleus called orbitals

Positivelycharged

1amu

= neutrons

-

-

Nucleus

_______________=

center of an atom.

Home to protons and neutrons.

No charge

1 amu

protons

electrons

neutral

If the # of _________ = # of _________ the atom is _____________ (no overall charge)

Ex. 6 protons = ++++++

6 electrons = ------

slide6
B B. Elements

· Elements=

· More than _____known kinds;

· Found on the

pure substances that consists entirely of one type of atom

2 dozen are common in living organisms

100

Periodic table

reading the periodic table example the element carbon only made of carbon atoms
Reading the Periodic TableExample: The element Carbon (only made of carbon atoms)

Atomicnumber =

Number of protons in an atom; different for each element

SYMBOL

____________

usually 1-2 letters

____________

of the element

NAME

_______________=

# Protons + # neutrons in an atom; the average of one elements isotopes

MASS NUMBER

Isotopes are the various forms of an atom that differ based on the number of neutrons in the nucleus such as C 14. The isotopes that differ from the most common form are often radioactive or unstable.

slide8
C. Chemical Compounds

1. Chemical compound=

Example: Sodium Chloride = Table salt Forms when

sodium and chlorine combine in a 1:1 ratio

2. Chemical formula=

Example: Sodium Chloride= NaCl

3. ____________________________ of a molecule

Example: = white crystalline solid

= a soft silvery metal that reacts

explosively with water

= poisonous greenish gas

a substance formed by the combination of 2 or more elements in definite proportions.

a short hand that shows chemical composition

Chemical properties

NaCl

Na

Cl

slide9
Chemical Bonds
    • Atoms in compounds are
    • Involves the
    • 2 main types of bonds are: ___________ and _________

held together by links called chemical bonds.

interaction of electrons

covalent ionic

slide10
1. Ionic Bonds

a.

b. ion=

are formed by the transfer of one or more electrons from one atom to another.

an atom that has a positive or negative charge as a result of gaining or losing electrons.

forming an ionic bond
Figure 2

-

3 Ionic Bonding

Section 2

-

1

Sodium atom (Na)

Chlorine atom (Cl)

Sodium ion (Na

)

Chloride ion (Cl

)

+

-

Transfer

of electron

Protons +11

Protons +17

Protons +11

Protons +17

Electrons

-

11

Electrons

-

17

Electrons

-

10

Electrons

-

18

Charge

Charge

Charge

Charge

FORMING AN IONIC BOND

0

0

+1

-1

c. Opposite charges attract creating a bond between the ions

slide12
2. Covalent Bonds

a. formed by the

b. Sharing means

c. atoms sharing 2 electrons=

__ electrons=double bond

6 electrons=

d. _________________= The smallest unit of most chemical compounds (those joined with covalent bonds)

sharing of electrons between 2 atoms.

that the moving electrons are actually traveling in the orbitals of both atoms.

single bond

4

triple bond

Molecule

iq 3 mini lab
IQ #3 Mini Lab
  • Predict the number of drops of water on one side of a penny.
  • Predict the number of drops of alcohol on one side of a penny.
  • Copy data table on IQ sheet.
  • Do Lab 3 times for validity/repeatability.
  • Explain your results using the properties of water.
water molecule
Water Molecule

Creates polar nature of water

hydrogen bonds
Hydrogen Bonds

Water can create up to 4 H-bonds per molecule

Create the 6 sided crystalline structure when solid.

mixtures and solutions
Mixtures and solutions
  • Mixture is two or molecules in combination
  • Solution involves mixture in which one compound dissolves in another.
  • The compound that dissolves is the solute
  • The compound dissolved in is the solvent
  • “ the solute dissolves in the solvent”
ionic solutions
Ionic solutions

Ionic compounds dissociate in water to become their individual ions.

Note how H’s of water are nearest Cl- and O of water is nearest Na+

Solute:

Solvent:

ph scale
pH Scale

More Hydroxide

ions (OH-)

BASE (Alkaline)

More Hydrogen

ions (H+)

Acid

slide19
2-2 Properties of Water- Refer to reader’s guide

2-3 Carbon Compounds

A. The Chemistry of Carbon

1. Carbon has ________________ which means carbon can form _________________

2. Living organisms are made up of molecules that consist

3. Carbon can bond with itself forming

4 valence electrons

4 covalent bonds.

of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen,

phosphorus, nitrogen and sulfur.

chains of unlimited length and form, rings, and complex structures.

slide20
B. Macromolecules
  • 1. Macromolecules=
  • 2. Polymerization=
  • 3. Monomers=
  • 4.  The _____ groups of organic compounds found in living things are:

are giant molecules consisting

of 1000+ smaller molecules.

process of joining small molecules to form large molecules

small units that form polymers (large molecules)

4

carbohydrates

lipids

nucleic acids

proteins

slide21
SINGLE SUGAR

GLYCOGEN

STARCH

POLYSACCHARIDE

PLANT CELL WALLS (CELLULOSE)

CHITIN (INSECT EXOSKELETON)

FATS

OILS

WAXES

STEROIDS

NO DOUBLE BONDS IN FATTY ACID

AT LEAST ONE DOUBLE BOND

slide22
DNA/RNA

5-C SUGAR

PHOSPHATE GROUP

NITROGENOUS

BASE

20 KINDS

HELPS CONTROL RATE OF REACTIONS (ENZYMES)

slide24
Carbohydrates

Lipids

Nucleic acids

Proteins

Sugars and

starches

Fats and oils

Nucleotides

Amino Acids

Carbon,

hydrogen,

oxygen

Carbon,

hydrogen,

oxygen

Carbon,

hydrogen,oxygen,

nitrogen,

Carbon,hydrogen,

oxygen, nitrogen,

phosphorus

Concept Summary

Section 2-3

Carbon

Compounds

include

that consist of

that consist of

that consist of

that consist of

which contain

which contain

which contain

which contain

Go to Section:

warm up
Warm-up

1. What is a catalyst?

2. What are enzymes?

3. How do catalyst work?

4. What affects the activity of an enzyme?

slide26
2-4 Chemical Reactions and Enzymes

A. Chemical Reactions =process that changes, or transforms one set of chemicals into

another. Always involves changes in

chemical bonds.

1. Reactants=

2. Products=

elements or compounds that enter a reaction

elements or compounds produced by a reaction

EXAMPLE: HCl H + Cl

slide27
energy that is needed to get a reaction started

B. Energy in Reactions

  • Activation Energy=

C. Enzymes

1. Catalyst=

a substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction without changing itself.

slide28
2. Catalysts ___________________________in a chemical reaction.

lower the activation energy

Reaction with no enzyme

AE without enzyme

AE with enzyme

reactants

Reaction with an enzyme

products

slide29
3. ______________ are ___________________ that speed up favorable (spontaneous) reactions.

4. Enzymes _____________ chemical reactions that take place in cells.

5. Enzymes are

Enzymes

biological catalysts

speed up

very specific

D. Enzyme Action

1. The Enzyme-Substrate Complex

a. Enzymes provide a site where reactants can be

brought together to react (increasing the rate of reaction by reducing the activation energy)

enzyme activity
Figure 2

-

21 Enzyme Action

Active site=

Enzyme Activity

Site on the enzyme where the substrate attaches

Section 2

-

4

Enzyme

Glucose

(hexokinase)

The reactants of a catalyzed reaction

Substrates

ADP

Products

Glucose

-

6

-

ATP

phosphate

Products

are released

Substrates

bind to

enzyme

Substrates

Enzyme-substrate complex

are converted

into products

slide31
Figure 2-21 Enzyme Action

Section 2-4

Enzyme

(hexokinase)

Glucose

Substrates

ADP

Products

Glucose-6-

phosphate

ATP

Products

are released

Active site

Substrates

bind to

enzyme

Enzyme-substrate

complex

Substrates

are converted

into products

Go to Section:

slide32
Figure 2-21 Enzyme Action

Section 2-4

Enzyme

(hexokinase)

Glucose

Substrates

ADP

Products

Glucose-6-

phosphate

ATP

Products

are released

Active site

Substrates

bind to

enzyme

Enzyme-substrate

complex

Substrates

are converted

into products

Go to Section:

slide33
Figure 2-21 Enzyme Action

Section 2-4

Enzyme

(hexokinase)

Glucose

Substrates

ADP

Products

Glucose-6-

phosphate

ATP

Products

are released

Active site

Substrates

bind to

enzyme

Enzyme-substrate

complex

Substrates

are converted

into products

Go to Section:

slide34
Figure 2-21 Enzyme Action

Section 2-4

Enzyme

(hexokinase)

Glucose

Substrates

ADP

Products

Glucose-6-

phosphate

ATP

Products

are released

Active site

Substrates

bind to

enzyme

Enzyme-substrate

complex

Substrates

are converted

into products

Go to Section:

slide35
b. Enzymes are not

2. Regulation of Enzyme Activity

- Enzyme activity depends on environmental

factors such as:

·

(enzymes in the stomach function best around

pH=2)

·

(human enzymes function best around 37°C)

consumed in the reaction; after products are formed, the enzyme is recycled.

pH

temperature

  • -Ionic conditions (coenzymes)
    • -Substrate concentration (greater the concentration the greater the rate of the reaction)
warm up1
Warm-up

1. What are the 4 organic macromolecules which make up living organisms.

2. What are the monomers (building blocks) to these macromolecules.

iq quiz chapter 2
IQ Quiz: Chapter 2
  • What kind of compounds did we test in the lab?
  • What chemical was used to test for simple sugars?
  • What was a positive result?
  • If we want to see if peanuts have fat in them what could we do?
  • How do we know if it is positive?
  • What did copper sulfate and sodium hydroxide test for?
  • What was a positive result?
  • If I had a bowl of cereal and Iodine fell into my cereal and turned a blue-black color what do I know is in my cereal?
  • Name a food that had more than 1 compound in it? (tested positive for more than 1 test)
  • What are the four most common elements in living things?
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