Pest Control Using Integrated Pest Management Ch. 3 & 4
Topics for Free Response QuestionFor Ch. 3 & 4 APES Test • r-strategists for reproduction • K-strategists for reproduction • Graph interpretation • Food web sketch • Experimental design • IPM – Integrated pest management
What are pests? • Pests are those organisms associated with negative economic and/or health effects • These often include insects (parasitic and otherwise), weeds, and rodents, yet others may be included.
Chemical Pesticides • Can be expensive • Usually only a short term solution, must keep reapplying • Cause harm to beneficial microorganisms and insects • Negative health consequences for humans, animals, and environment (water, air, soil, etc)
Integrated Pest Management (IPM) • Coordinated use of pest & environmental information to develop the best feasible control methods • In a way that is the least harmful to people, property and environment and still cost effective • Emphasis is on pest “control” not eradication • Targeted, finely tuned common-sense methods as opposed to indiscreminatetoxification of EVERYTHING • A return to old-school, pre-chemical industry methods of pest management
IPM 4 Tiered Approach • 1st Step: Set a Pest Action Threshold = the level at which too much economic or health damage has/will occur • 2nd Step: Information Building = regular observation, identification and record keeping of the “pest” is the cornerstone, what temp is the insect’s optimal time?, is the insest innocuous or even beneficial?
IPM 4 Tier Approach • 3rd Step: Prevention = 1st line of defense by trying to mitigate the pest problem in the first place, e.g. crop rotation, choosing pest-resistant varieties, planting pest-free root stock & removing diseased plants, plant sanitation techniques, keeping weeds and grass cut short to lower risk of ticks & chiggers • 4th Step: Control & Reduction of the pest = less risky controls such as mechanical (trapping or weeding) or highly targeted pheromones disruptors…then reevaluate As the last resort, control options can turn to targeted spraying of (biological and synthetic) pesticides and even broad, non-specific pesticides
IPM methods include: • Prevention like inspecting crops and monitoring crops for damage to prevent pest outbreaks in the first place • Controls such as using mechanical trapping devices, natural predators (e.g., insects that eat other insects), insect growth regulators, mating disruption substances (pheromones), removal of brush or high grass (for tick infestations) and in some cases if necessary, chemical pesticides. The use of biological (natural) pesticides is also an important component of IPM.
IPM in Action • An IPM bollworm trap in a cotton field to prevent defoliage
Chitin use as a biocontrol • A natural biocontrol is active ingredient, chitin/chitosan, is found in the shells of crustaceans, such as lobsters, crabs, and shrimp, and insects. • chitin is used primarily as a natural seed treatment and plant growth enhancer, and as a substance that boosts the ability of plants to defend against fungal infections. untreated brocoli vs. chitin treated brocoli marked YEA!
Deer Tick IPM • IPM options: • monitor (the detection of tick location and timing of infestations) • identification and reduction of tick habitat, removal of leaf litter, keeping brush and grass cut low, exposure to more sunlight to increase soil temperature and reduce moisture, controlled burning of brush • personal protection using light-colored clothing and using repellents • perhaps targeted natural and synthetic control applications for hosts as well as tick habitat, introduce tick-repellant plant • The deer tick, Ixodes scapularis is the principal vector of Lyme disease in the United States. Deer tick normally feeds on mice, deer and other small mammals and birds. • Lyme disease is an illness caused by a spirochete (a corkscrew-shaped bacterium) infection.
Use of Beneficial Predator Insects • Safer, easier, better in the long term and cost effective than chemical pesticides • Beneficial Insects was standard practice prior to the introduction of toxic insecticides in the 1940's. Both the California citrus crop and the Hawaiian sugar field were saved with the use of Beneficial Insects. • Every pest has a natural enemy, the key to successful pest control is to identify the pest and their natural enemies, releasing the Beneficial Insect early when pest levels are low and let nature take its course
Beneficial Predator Insects Beneficial Insects ...................... Target Pests • Lady Bugs............................... • Aphids, Whitefly, Fruitworms, Mites • Praying Mantis........................• General Predator • Whitefly Parasite................... • Whitefly • Beneficial Nematodes.............• Fleas, Grubs, Cranefly, Root Weevil • Green Lacewing.......................• Aphids, Whitefly, Leafminer, Mites • Trichogramma..........................• Moths, Borers, Webworm, Fruitworms • Fly Parasites.......................... • House Flies, Horse Flies • Mason Bee................................• Crop and fruit tree pollination