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Immunology --- prevention and treatment of infectious diseases. Zhaolin Hua Institute of Biophysics, CAS. Innate immunity --- the new frontier of immunology Viral infection and antibody --- a lesson from HIV elite controller Mucosal immunity --- why we are what we eat Future challenges

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Immunology prevention and treatment of infectious diseases

Immunology --- prevention and treatment of infectious diseases

Zhaolin Hua

Institute of Biophysics, CAS


Immunology prevention and treatment of infectious diseases

  • Innate immunity diseases--- the new frontier of immunology

  • Viral infection and antibody--- a lesson from HIV elite controller

  • Mucosal immunity--- why we are what we eat

  • Future challenges

    --- what immunology can do for us


Innate immunity the new frontier of immunology
Innate Immunity diseases--- the new frontier of immunology


The two arms of immune system
The Two Arms of Immune System diseases

Innate

Adaptive

Jansson, Eugène Fredrik


Adaptive immune system
Adaptive immune system diseases

B cell

T cell

  • Immunoglobulin (antibody)

  • T cell receptor

  • recognition of fast evolved virus or bacteria


A prediction by immunologist dr janeway
A Prediction by immunologist Dr. diseasesJaneway

There must be a mechanism for the immune system to distinguish good and bad. (1989)

Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs)

Charles Janeway

(1943-2003)


Some examples of pamps
Some Examples of diseasesPAMPs

Virus DNA

Bacterial cell wall



Flies also need immunity
Flies also need immunity diseases

Hoffmann JA

Normal

Mutant

Mutation of a single gene called “Toll” make the flies susceptible to fungal infection.


Toll like receptor can recognize lps
Toll-like receptor can recognize LPS diseases

LPS (lipopolysaccharide)

  • Produced by Gram-negative bacteria

  • Causes septic shock in human

A mouse strain that is susceptible to Gram-negative bacterial infection was found to bear a mutation in Toll-like receptor 4.



Pattern recognition
Pattern recognition diseases

  • Pattern Recognition Receptors

  • TLRs

  • NLRs

  • CLRs

  • RLRs

  • PAMPs

  • DAMPs


The importance of innate immunity
The importance of innate immunity diseases

  • A first line of defense

  • A means of directing adaptive immunity


Direct defense by innate immunity phagocytosis
Direct defense by innate immunity diseasesPhagocytosis


Direct defense by innate immunity anti microbial peptides
Direct defense by innate immunity diseasesAnti-microbial peptides


Direct defense by innate immunity anti viral response
Direct defense by innate immunity diseasesAnti-viral response


Regulate adaptive immunity by innate immunity activation of dendritic cells
Regulate adaptive immunity by innate immunity diseasesActivation of dendritic cells

Dendritic cells present antigens to T lymphocytes


Regulate adaptive immunity by innate immunity enhance antibody response
Regulate adaptive immunity by innate immunity diseasesEnhance antibody response

B cells, which generate adaptive immunity, also express innate immune receptors. Simultaneous activation of both antigen-recognition and PAMP-recognition receptors induces strong antibody response.




Viral infection and antibody a lesson from hiv elite controller
Viral infection and antibody our body.--- a lesson from HIV elite controller


A scientist s view of aids
A scientist’s view of AIDS our body.

  • Prevention: vaccine

  • Treatment: anti-viral cocktail



Hiv elite controller
HIV elite controller our body.

  • Scott Wafrock (top left) has lived with HIV for 26 years,

  • Bob Massie (top right) for 34 years,

  • LoreenWillenberg (bottom right) for 20 years,

  • Doug Robinson (bottom left) learned he was HIV-positive in 2003.

One out of 300 people infected with HIV are naturally able to control the virus without having to take antiviral medications.





The diversity of immunoglobulin
The diversity of immunoglobulin controller

Membrane Ig: B cell signaling

Soluble Ig: antibody

Ig gene contains many gene segments which can form many different combinations.





Can we cure aids
Can we cure AIDS? antibodies for HIV?

Timothy Ryan “Berlin Patient”

In 2007, an HIV-infected man in Berlin received a transplant of haematopoietic stem cells from a naturally HIV-resistant donor. He has now been free of readily detectable virus in the absence of therapy for more than five years.


Towards the future of aids
Towards the future of AIDS antibodies for HIV?

  • Anti-viral therapy ✔

  • Stem-cell transplant ?

  • HIV vaccine ?

  • Passive antibody therapy ?


Mucosal immunity why we are what we eat
Mucosal immunity antibodies for HIV?--- why we are what we eat


We are what we eat
We are what we eat antibodies for HIV?


Immunology prevention and treatment of infectious diseases

What we eat determines the bacterial flora ( antibodies for HIV?microbiota) in our gut.



Human gut microbiota
Human gut antibodies for HIV?microbiota

  • The human body carries 100 trillion (1014) microorganisms in its intestines, 10 times more than the total number of human cells.

  • Beneficial roles of gut microbiota include: digestion, provide essential nutrients such as vitamin B and K, metabolize bile acids and xenobiotics.


What s your gut type
What’s your gut type? antibodies for HIV?

Three major “enterotypes” were found in human, they are Bacteroides, Prevotella and Ruminococcus.


Immunology prevention and treatment of infectious diseases

Diet antibodies for HIV?

microbiota

metabolism


Commensals maintain immunity at epithelial borders
Commensals antibodies for HIV? maintain immunity at epithelial borders


Immunology prevention and treatment of infectious diseases

Commensal antibodies for HIV? bacteria can provide protection through the creation of a hostile environment for pathogenic bacteria by the production of inhibitory compounds, by competing for adhesion sites, or by modulating the immune response.


Immunology prevention and treatment of infectious diseases

Commensal antibodies for HIV? bacteria are required to generate proper mucosal immunity.



Are there probiotics
Are there immune surveillanceprobiotics?

No clinical proof yet!


Take home message
Take home message immune surveillance

  • Our gut is not only for food digestion, but also an important immune organ.

  • We are living with large amount of microorganisms in our body and they shape our metabolism system and our immune responses.

  • Scientists are trying to find the “real” probiotics which can benefit human health.


Future challenge what immunology can do for us
Future Challenge immune surveillance--- what immunology can do for us


Immunology prevention and treatment of infectious diseases

Despite remarkable advances in medical research and treatments during the 20th century, infectious diseases remain among the leading causes of death worldwide.


Challenges for prevention and treatment of infectious diseases
Challenges for prevention and treatment of infectious diseases

  • emergence of new infectious diseases

    SARS, Bird’s Flu, Super-bacteria

  • re-emergence of old infectious diseases

    Polios, Measles, tuberculosis

  • persistence of intractable infectious diseases

    AIDS, Hepatitis B, latent infection of Herpes viruses


Immunology prevention and treatment of infectious diseases

Interdisciplinary approach to tackle the problem diseases

Stem cell technique

DNA sequencing

vaccine

bioinformatics

Structural biology

Monoclonal antibody

Drug screening









Artemisinin for drug resistant malaria
Artemisinin for therapeutic purposes. (青蒿素)--- for drug-resistant malaria



Collaboration collaboration collaboration
Collaboration, collaboration, collaboration for therapeutic purposes.

  • Health issue is important for both economic and politic reasons.

  • New techniques promote scientific discoveries.

  • Scientific collaborations create new opportunities.