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Land use changes in tropical watersheds: causes, consequences and policy options synthesis. Causes. • Population pressure precipitating area expansion - inadequate labor absorption leading to in-migration
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Land use changes in tropical watersheds: causes, consequences and policy optionssynthesis
Causes • Population pressure precipitating area expansion - inadequate labor absorption leading to in-migration • Policies and relative prices that favor annual crops - erosion, high rates of chemical input use • Weak institutions - difficulty in influencing activity and encroachment • Weak knowledge base - unforeseen consequences • 50% roads, 50% crops?
Consequences • Land and water degradation - soil erosion, sedimentation, e. coli, pesticides - enhanced knowledge of consequences • Economic growth - prosperity? - growth of off-farm labor market opportunities (out-migration? reduced forest pressure?) - increased capacity to intensify agriculture - increased capacity to deal with problems • Community response, growth of special interest groups • Regional and national policy responses
Policy Options • Strengthen property rights - enhanced adoption of trees and SWC measures • Strengthen local knowledge and local institutions • Coordinate local and national policies - are policies to encourage economic growth and environmental protection aligned? • Re-orient relative prices • Refine and target “hot-spots” - land use zoning, restrictions • Pursue labor-intensive economic growth