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Unit 2 The China Lobby's Impact on U.S.-China Relations: A Case Study of Human Rights Issues

Unit 2 The China Lobby's Impact on U.S.-China Relations: A Case Study of Human Rights Issues Dr. Pei-Shan Kao, Assistant Professor National Chiao Tung University, TAIWAN. Uncle Sam vs. China Dragon.

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Unit 2 The China Lobby's Impact on U.S.-China Relations: A Case Study of Human Rights Issues

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  1. Unit 2 The China Lobby's Impact on U.S.-China Relations: A Case Study of Human Rights Issues Dr. Pei-Shan Kao, Assistant Professor National Chiao Tung University, TAIWAN

  2. Uncle Sam vs. China Dragon Source: http://image.examiner.com/images/blog/wysiwyg/Image/Uncle_Sam_Milestones_Magazine.JPG; http://www.orientaloutpost.com/proddetail.php?prod=ds-ldl11, “consulted in March 2009”.

  3. I. Introduction II. Term Explanations: Interest Groups; The China Lobby; The Taiwan Lobby III. History of US-China Relations IV. The Case Study of Human Rights: U.S.-China Bargaining on Tiananmen Incident V. The China Lobby Impact on States’ Bargaining  VI. Conclusion

  4. 1. Introduction As the USA is a democratic and pluralistic society, lobbying activities are very active and influential. In U.S.-China relations, many interest groups actively intervene and participate inside the process. -By means of “politicisation”(政治化), they express their opinions to influence states’ bargaining and policies. -Not only American interest groups but also the Chinese teams actively lobby on matters with regard to trade, human rights, and national defense, etc.

  5. -They lobby for Congress support for their claims. →This complicates states’ decision making process. -The Chinese community in the USA= much more complicated; ∵many different groups -∴This Unit attempts to examine the role the lobby groups played in U.S.-China relations & their effectiveness.

  6. Table 1. The Path of Interest Groups’ Influence Interest Groups→ PRESSURE → ↓RESPONSE

  7. 2. TERM EXPLANATIONSa. Interest Groups (or Pressure Groups) private organisations that attempt to affect states’ policies and political decisions according to their own interests. ~ “any group that, on the basis of one or more shared attitudes, make certain claims upon other groups in the society for the establishment of forms of behavior that implied by the shared attitudes”. (David Truman, 1951) Many different types: e.g. business groups, professional bodies and trade unions, etc., who represent their members’ interests. In the USA, many business groups such as “Coalition for a Sound Dollar” and “U.S. Chamber of Commerce” actively involve in U.S.-China relations. Some of them show support for engagement with China; some of them criticise and oppose having close relationship with China.

  8. b. The China Lobby In the USA, the "China lobby“= the special interest group acting on behalf of the Chinese government to influence America’s China policy. *Before the retreat of the regime of Chiang Kai-shek to Taiwan in 1949, the term “China lobby” → the interest groups acting on behalf of the Republic of China (R.O.C.). During the Second World War, their major work was to persuade U.S. Congress to provide much more economic aids to Chiang to fight against the Japanese. -When the Nationalist government retreated to Taiwan, the China lobby (the R.O.C.) attempted to prevent U.S. recognition of the Chinese Communist regime.

  9. ∵the rise of China, the PRC lobby has much more financial resources to fortify their presence in American politics. -Meanwhile, the “China lobby” gradually refers to the PRC lobby. -Generally speaking, in the USA, the PRC China lobby can be divided into two groups: one supports the Chinese government and another is considered anti-government. -e.g. The Friendship Association of Chinese Students and Scholars (FACSS) is the pro-Beijing groups in America. Other groups: Overseas Chinese Democracy Coalition, Foundation for China in the 21st Century, Support Democracy in China (SDC), Silicon Valley for Democracy in China (SVDC), China Democracy Party (CDP), etc., are the anti-government groups.

  10. Source: http://chirony.files.wordpress.com/2009/07/westernpanda1.jpg; http://www.montrealgazette.com/sports/china+human+rights+record+goes+under+microscope/1267107/1256937.bin?size=620x400; http://photos-d.ak.facebook.com/photos-ak-sf2p/v241/115/3/607207204/n607207204_562859_2402.jpg; “consulted in September 2009”.

  11. 3. The Taiwan Lobby -The Taiwan Lobby in the USA: many different groups. i.e. the Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office (TECRO); the Taiwanese Chamber of Commerce of North America (TCCNA); World United Formosans for Independence (WUFI); the Formosan Association for Political Activity (FAPA); and the Kuomintang (KMT) groups. -Each group has its appeals. e.g. the TCCNA, FAPA and the WUFI support Taiwan’s independence. They hence oppose the KMT groups who support having good relationship with China. The TECRO represents official opinions and interests.

  12. Before 1979, the PRC China lobby was practically nonexistent; since 1979, the PRC China lobby has gradually strengthened. By the 1990s, "China lobby" began usually referring to special interest groups acting on behalf of the PRC The China Lobby (1940s-1979) →The ROC China Lobby (1979-1990) →The Taiwan Lobby (1990s-)

  13. III. History of US-China Relations

  14. President Barack Obama meets with President Hu at G20 Summit in London (April 2009) Chairman Mao meets with President Nixon (1972) Source:http://img.timeinc.net/time/asia/magazine/2006/1211/nixon_mao.jpg, “consulted in May 2008”. Source: http://www.cleveland.com/world/index.ssf/2009/04/obama_and_hu_schedule_meeting.html

  15. a. China-U.S. Interdependent Economic and Trade Relations *China-US two-way trade accounted for 17.7% of China’s total trade amount. *NOW the USA= China’s 1st trading partner *The USA= the 1st export market for China *The USA=China’s 4th-largest import supplier

  16. *China= America’s third-largest export market *China= America’s fastest growing export market *China (has passed Canada)= America’s biggest import supplier

  17. *US-China trade reached a particularly high level of growth: • the years after 1979, when they established formal diplomatic relations ; • (2) in the post-Cold War era (1989-present). *On Foreign Direct Investment: The USA is China’s major investor country since 1979. The cumulative realised amount of US investment in China was $57.13 billion since 1979 till January 2008, ranking the second biggest investor of China after Japan.

  18. China’s “Go Global” policy in 2000 *More and more Chinese companies were permitted by the Chinese government to do business in the USA. *Chinese-invested companies mainly have been concentrated in New York, followed by Los Angeles, San Francisco, Chicago, Houston and Seattle. *The majority of Chinese enterprises focus on selling manufactured products.

  19. b. Active Social and Cultural Exchanges Source: China Review News, http://www.chinareviewnews.com/doc/1003/1/2/3/100312379.html?coluid=7&kindid=0&docid=100312379, “consulted in October 2007.” Exchange Students Tourists and Visitors Numbers Source: http://demo1.nkhc.edu.tw/~t0123/airlines/EVAfly.jpg, “consulted in October 2007.”

  20. *According to American statistics, in 1990 there were only 624,000 journeys by Americans to China. However, this level grew nearly two times to 1,181,000 in 1995, and totalled 1,476,000 in 2000. *The percentage increase over ten years, namely from 1990-2000, is 136%, and the annual growth rate is 9.0%. *In 2000, China ranked seventh amongst foreign countries visited by Americans. *In 2006, there were 1,327,000 U.S. residents travelling to China; China rank as the tenth destination for U.S. travelers.

  21. *In 1990 there were 229,000 trips made by Chinese to the United States. This increased to 387,000 five years later, and totalled 453,000 in 2000. *China ranked, in 2002, fifteenth amongst countries travelling to the United States. *The numbers of Chinese tourists nearly grew two times within ten years. The annual growth rate is 7.0%. *In 2008, there were 493,000 Chinese visitors to the United States. -Transportation Links: -American Airlines (AA); Hainan Airlines (HU); Air China (CA); China Eastern (MU); China Southern (CZ) airlines; Northwest Airlines (NW); and United Airlines (UA) -Kungpeng Airlines (joint venture between China’s Shenzhen Airlines and Mesa Air Group of the United States)

  22. Bilateral Educational Exchanges *From 1978 to 1991, there were no more than 80,000 Chinese students studying in the United States. *In 2002, there were 64,757 Chinese students studying in the USA; until 2005, there are 640,000 Chinese students in total studying in America. *On the other side, in 2006 there were 11,064 Americans studied in China; however, in 1995 there were only 1,396 Americans studying there.

  23. c. Governmental and Congressional Exchange Mechanism *Establishment of a strategic dialogue regime between American and Chinese senior level officials (twice a year in Beijing and Washington, alternatively; dialogue content was not limited to any specific economic, political and security issues. ) (2005) *Establish a “military hotline” (2007) *Establishment of an exchange mechanism between their legislative bodies. (The NPC and the Senate ) (2004) *The “China Caucus” set up by the US Senate and the House of Representatives for a better understanding of China and for the purpose of promoting the bilateral exchanges. (2005) *The “US-China Working Group” in the House of Representatives (2005); “the Senate China Working Group” (2006)

  24. Chinese Community in the USA *The Friendship Association of Chinese Students and Scholars (FACSS), one of the biggest Chinese groups in America. *Asian American Business Development Centre. *The Chinese Finance Association.

  25. IV. The Case Study of Human Rights: U.S.-China Bargaining on Tiananmen Incident <Background> The June 4 incident seriously damaged U.S.-China relationship, making it fall to the lowest point since they established diplomatic relations in 1979. Not only President Bush but also Congress expressed their regret and anger. US Secretary of State James Baker: The Chinese government’s action a most unfortunate event, and that the American people were extremely concerned about it.

  26. <US Reactions and Policies> *US Congress: strong reactions and criticism e.g.-Stephen Solarz, urged the recall of the US ambassador to Beijing, and called for the cessation of military cooperation and commercial exchange with China -Senator Jesse Helms demanded the introduction of economic sanctions -considered granting sanctuary to Chinese students staying in the USA.(The Pelosi Bill) -suggested and introduced dozens of sanctions bills to punish China -required President Bush to adopt more extensive and stronger measures -The renewal of China’s MFN status?

  27. *Public Opinions: more than 75 percent of Americans were following the story closely; called for harsh sanctions *Interest Groups: International Labour Organisation; Robert J. Kennedy Memorial Foundation for Human Rights; Human Rights Watch; Asia Watch (testified 9 times); Amnesty International, the International Human Rights Law Group, and the anti-PRC China lobby, i.e., the Independent Federation of Chinese Students and Scholars (IFCSS),etc. → called for tougher measures *Bush Administration: Sanctions + Secret Visits to ChinaDeputy Secretary of State National Security Advisor Lawrence Eagleburger Brent Scowcroft

  28. <China’s Attitudes and Reactions> *Serious attitudes and criticism *Used the serious discrepancy between the executive and congressional branches of the USA *conveyed a ‘partially conciliatory’ message to the USA ↓ *Lifted ‘restrictions on cultural and academic exchanges and promised not to sell medium-range missiles to the Middle East. *Agreed to resume discussions on the Fulbright programme; allowed US diplomats to travel to Tibet; and the return of Peace Corps volunteers. *Announced the release of 573 detainees *Purchased $4 billion of Boeing aircraft as well as US wheat to appease the US Congress and to please American enterprises *Lifted the Martial Law

  29. →President Bush then relaxed many economic sanctions he had imposed on China →Chinese Foreign Minister Qian Qichen was invited by Baker to visit the United States for talks on the Persian Gulf in November, 1990. →Baker accepted Qian’s invitation to visit China in 1991. →In January 1992, President Bush met Li Peng in New York, during a visit to the United Nations headquarters. ↓ U.S.-China Relations were recovered

  30. Conclusion ~To conclude, Chinese bargaining strategies were multi-dimensional during this crisis bargaining. Although it encouraged US allies to impose pressure on the United States, to prevent the imposition of more sanctions, China also knew how to make some concessions at the best moment. In addition, it smartly utilised and united with the pro-PRC groups, namely American interest groups and the PRC lobby to influence the US government. ~Compared with China’s flexible strategies and policies, the plural social and governmental system of the United States obstructed its bargaining tactics. Congressional requirements, NGO vigilance and the separation of powers in the United States make it more difficult to produce a coordinated policy.

  31. Conclusions: • Since the United States is a pluralistic and democratic country, any one can express their opinions and voices; this encourages the involvement and participation of lobbies in politics. • -In this crisis bargaining, the lobbies (American interest groups + the China lobby )actively involved in the process to influence the US government’s decision making. • 2. China’s successful utilisation of American interest groups ( knew how to unite with American business group to seek Congress support against the anti-PRC lobby.) • e.g. Viewing the renewal of its MFN trade status in June 1990, and the serious pressure President Bush confronted from Congress, and many interest groups, China decided to make more compromises.

  32. 3. However, compared with the performance and activities of the ROC lobby in the early time or the anti-PRC lobbies, the PRC China lobby is not so active. They are used to cooperating with the government and play a secondary role in U.S.-China relations. 4. The anti-PRC lobbies, particularly the human rights groups, greatly and actively involve in American politics attempting to influence its decision-making. 5. Although the US government made some decisions under the pressure of the lobbies and Congress, the Administration has its own thoughts and considerations. →even though the lobbies can influence states’ bargaining and decision-making, the efficiency of their works depends.

  33. Thanks for your listening, see you next week!!

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