Facilities Management By: Chaizong Lor, Safety Coordinator Hearing ConservationNoise Exposure Standard29 CFR 1910.95
Hearing Conservation • Training Objectives: • Provision of Noise Information • Hearing Safety • Explain how hearing loss occurs • Categories of Hearing Loss • Hearing Prevention Methods • The Noise Reduction Rating • Noise Hazard Signs • FP&M Hearing Conservation Program • Summary
Provision of Noise Information • What is Noise? • A sound that is unwanted because of: • Intensity • Frequency • Duration • Sound is produced by vibrating objects and reaches a person’s ears as waves in the air or other media. • A vibration in the air transmitted by the eardrum and bones of the middle ear to the inner ear.
Noise Risk FactorsIntensity: The loudness of sound, or the pressure it exerts through the ear. Noise Levels: Jet Take - Off Most Severe Gun Shot 150 150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 140 Jack-Hammer, Rock Concert 130 Car Stereo, Band Practice 120 Dance Clubs, Headphones 110 Factory 100 Subway Busy Street 90 80 Restaurant 70 Normal Speech 60 Decibels Action Level (85 dBA) Least Severe
Provision of Noise Information • Noise Risk Factors Cont. • Frequency • Frequency is the number of sound waves (high and low pressure areas) produced by a noise source passing a given point per second. • Duration • The amount of time you are exposed to a sound level. • Continuous such as: • Music, grinders, engine running • Impulse • It should not exceed 140 dBA peak sound pressure level as measured by an impulsive type sound level meter. • Example, Pneumatic tools, punch press, gun shots, firecracker are more damaging
Hearing Safety • If you have to shout at 3 feet in order to be understood you should be wearing hearing protection. • Off-the-job activities (woodworking, shooting, etc.) can hurt your hearing. - Hearing protection is recommended. • Never remove hearing protection in high noise areas. • Do NOT share hearing protection with others.
Physiological Effects: 3 Interference With Communication Psychological Effects: Types of Hearing Effects Explain how hearing loss occurs It is noise-induced loss or aural pain, nausea and reduced muscular control. Effects such as depression and nervousness are a result of the ear’s inability to adjust to sound (i.e. disrupt concentration of sleep). Not being able to communicate well with others can cause arguments, depression, loneliness, and a sense of helplessness.
Outer Ear Human ear has 3 Parts Middle Ear Inner Ear Outer Ear Middle Ear Inner Ear Explain how hearing loss occurs The outer ear or pinna, funnels sound waves into the ear canal, which will lead to the eardrum. It will catch dirt and particles in the canal that contains cerumen or wax. Has three tiny bones and ear drum which can rupture from sudden high sound pressure level. Has cochlea with tiny hair cells connected to nerves. It signals the brain, which lets you know what sound you heard. Damage is irreversible.
Categories of Hearing Loss • Conductive Hearing Loss: • Occurs when the sound vibration from the outer and middle ear is unable to stimulate the inner ear, due to some form of interference but the inner ear functions normally. • The outer ear is generally susceptible to physical damage or infection. • Possible causes of a conductive loss include: • A build-up of fluid in the middle ear. • Wax in the ear canal. • Puncturing of the eardrum.
Categories of Hearing Loss Cont. • Sensory Hearing loss: • Damage to or a malfunction of the inner ear, auditory nerve, or the brain. • The causes of Sensory Hearing loss: • Genetic Disorders. • The natural aging process. • Exposure to loud noises. • Infection or other disease.
Categories of Hearing Loss Cont. • Aging • Presbycusis: • The gradual loss of hearing due to increasing age. • Two theories of Presbycusis: • Caused by changes of blood supply to the inner ear that decreases with age. • Cumulative effect of noise exposure. • Exposure to Noise • Prolonged exposure to loud noise can also destroy the sensitive hair cells of the cochlea. • Brief exposure to loud noises (85 dBA or louder) can also cause a temporary damage.
Categories of Hearing Loss Cont. • Symptoms of Over Exposure • Do Not ignore these symptoms: • Dullness in hearing. • Ringing in the ear (Tinnitus). • Difficulty hearing a conversation against a noisy background. • Other Dangers of Noise: • Increased Fatigue, errors. • Increased Stress and/or irritability. • Elevated Blood Pressure. • Decreased Productivity.
Hearing Prevention Methods • Engineering Controls • Enclosure • Provide an easy, secure and effective way to isolate noisy machines. • Sound barriers • Materials used to stop sound from a noisy machine or equipment. • Sound proof cabs • Better design of machinery & equipment, insulate the machinery to reduce the noise & isolate workers in soundproof booths. • Equipment and exhaust • Proper maintenance of equipment & exhaust prevents the extra noise of machine & dirty exhaust.
Hearing Prevention Methods Cont. • Administrative Controls • Decreasing the exposure time • Limiting the amount of time a worker spends in a high noise area to less than 8 hours. • Limiting the number of personnel exposed • The number of employees working in the noisy area should be limited to the absolute minimum. • Arranging a work roster system • A roster system could be arranged when employees are not working in the same areas everyday.
Hearing Prevention Methods Cont. • Hearing Protectors “Earplugs” • Description • These devices fit into the ear canal between the outer and middle ear and block the sound from reaching the sensitive inner ear. • Made of foam material that is rolled and inserted, expands to fit snugly. • How to fit and wear • Wash hands, roll and compress into a cylinder. Reach one hand around the back of the head and pull ear up and out. Insert into the ear canal. Hold in place until it begins to expand and excludes noise.
Hearing Prevention Methods Cont. • Earplugs • Care • Inspect before insertion and discard if damaged or dirty. • Advantages • Small, inexpensive, portable, comfortable in warm weather, disposable, can hear others speaking. • Disadvantages • Requires a good fit, cannot be inserted with dirty hands, cannot be worn with ear infections, might become loose over time.
Hearing Prevention Methods Cont. • Hearing Protectors “Ear-band” • Description • Over the head, in front the neck and behind the neck. • Advantages • Soft pieces pressed against ear canal by spring-loaded band. • More convenient than earmuffs. • Can provide adequate protection. • Flexible tips. • Do not extend into the ear canal. • Only cover canal opening. • Disadvantages • May become uncomfortable over time. • Soft pieces are bulky for some employees. • Cannot be inserted with dirty hands.
Hearing Prevention Methods Cont. • Hearing Protectors “Earmuffs” • Description • This style protector consists of cups which fit over the entire outer ear to help seal out noise. May be connected to the hard hat or held together by a head band. • How to fit and wear • Cushioned caps connected by a spring loaded headband. • Adjust the headband to ensure that the seals are in complete contact with the head. Ensure the ear cup fits over the entire outer ear.
Hearing Prevention Methods Cont. • Earmuffs • Care • Wipe cushions when they become soiled. Replace if stiff, worn, cut or torn. • Advantages • Can be worn with ear plugs for extreme noise exposure. Reduction of approximately 28-50 dBA. Easy to put on and remove. Can be worn despite ear infections. • Disadvantages • Bulky and can be uncomfortable in warm weather.
Proper Use of Hearing Protection • Earplugs must be properly inserted • Roll the earplug up into a small, thin "snake" with your fingers. You can use one/both hands. • Pull the top of your ear up and back with your opposite hand to straighten out your ear canal. The rolled-up earplug should slide right in. • Hold the earplug gently in with your fingertip for one minute until the form expands and has made a good seal.
The Noise Reduction Rating • The Noise Reduction Rating (NRR) is a rating given to hearing protection devices. • The NRR is used to estimate how well the device reduces noise, the higher the number the greater the noise reduction.
The Noise Reduction Rating Cont. Determine “real life” NRR according to OSHA: Lmeasured – (NRR - 7 dB) = LHPD For example, your ear plugs have an NRR of 25 and you are exposed to 95 dB, so: 95 – (25 - 7) = 77 dB So if you wear hearing protection as directed, 100% of the time during noisy work, your exposure will decrease from 95 dBto 77 dB.
Noise Hazard Signs • Used when engineering controls do not work, or are not feasible. • Use Yellow and Black signs to mark hazards. • Large signs for entire areas. • Small stickers for individual equipment. • Post areas as Hearing Protection Required if sound levels at or above 90dBA.
FM Hearing Conservation Program • Program requirement: • Protect workers from risks to their hearing caused by noise. • Prevent hearing loss and deafness as a result of exposure to noise at work. • Identify noise problems and if noise levels are above 85dB(A), measurements must be taken and assessed by a competent person. • General duty to reduce the level of noise exposure by engineering or administrative means.
FM HCP Cont. • Program Requirement • If noise level is above 85dB(A): • Inform employees of the noise levels present and measures taken to reduce exposure. • Make ear protection available and provide training in its use • Hearing checks must be made available to employees exposed to noise levels in excess of 85dB(A) over an 8 hour TWA.
Summary • Be able to recognize the potential hazards of noise and its symptoms. • Be able to use noise control methods such as Engineering Control, Administrative Control, and PPE to avoid exposure to noise • Wear hearing protection properly • Proper fit to ensure protection • Must maintain a good seal • Readjust as necessary
Any Questions ?? Please visit FM Website (http://www.uwec.edu/facmgt/safety/traininglist.htm) for additional information. Revision Dated: September26th, 2012