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Chapter 27. The Age of Containment 1946-1954. Web. Creating a National Security State, 1945-49. Onset of the Cold War Various interpretations Traditional Focus on Soviet Expansionism Revisionist Focus on Soviet vulnerability Others Focus on historical Soviet-American rivalries

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chapter 27

Chapter 27

The Age of Containment 1946-1954

Web

creating a national security state 1945 49
Creating a National Security State, 1945-49
  • Onset of the Cold War
    • Various interpretations
      • Traditional
        • Focus on Soviet Expansionism
      • Revisionist
        • Focus on Soviet vulnerability
      • Others
        • Focus on historical Soviet-American rivalries
    • Truman administration took a hard line
      • Atomic Bomb
        • Baruch Plan
      • Financial
        • Suspended Lend-Lease
      • Political
        • Tied economic aid to pullbacks in Easter Europe
    • After 1847, the administration focused on “national security”
containment abroad the truman doctrine
Containment Abroad: The Truman Doctrine
  • Background
    • Civil war in Greece
    • Traditional sphere of influence
    • By Spring 1947, British could no longer afford to stay in Greece
  • Truman decision to step in
    • Way to protect free world
    • Had to resist Communist aggression
    • Overcame domestic opposition
  • Idea of Containment
    • George Kennan article in Foreign Affairs (1947)
    • Catchphrase for global, anticommunist national security policy
    • Linked all leftist movements to Moscow
truman s loyalty program
Truman’s Loyalty Program
  • Loyalty review boards to ensure that government employees were not “Security risks”
  • Attorney General’s List of subversive organizations
  • Based on premise that Soviets were widely conducting espionage in the United States
    • Verona files
the national security act 1947
The National Security Act, 1947
  • Created several new bureaucracies
    • Steps toward creation of Department of Defense
    • National Security Council
    • Central Intelligence Agency
      • Most flexible arm of national security bureaucracy
the marshall plan
The Marshall Plan
  • Linked economic policies in Western Europe to containment
  • U.S. Financial assistance to prevent spread of communism
  • Opened markets and investment opportunities for U.S. Stunning success
the berlin crisis
The Berlin Crisis
  • German recovery central to recovery of Western Europe
  • British, American, French zones would merge currency, June,1948
    • First step toward merger
  • Soviets responded by cutting West Berlin off from outside world
  • Americans responded with airlift
  • Soviets abandoned ineffectual blockade in May,1949
the election of 1948
The Election of 1948
  • Truman won after major political comeback
  • Some Democrats backed Progressive Party
    • Nominated Henry a. Wallace
    • Considered containment too militant
  • Some Democrats backed States’ Right Party (Dixiecrats)
    • Nominated Strom Thurmond
    • Opposed federal action in area of civil rights
  • Republicans nominated Thomas Dewey
    • Lackluster campaigner
  • Truman waged aggressive, energetic campaign
    • Eked out victory
    • Strong national security record probably helped in election
slide9

©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license.

Presidential Election, 1948

the era of the korean war 1949 1952
The Era of the Korean war, 1949-1952
  • NATO
    • Pledged to collective defense against Soviet aggression
  • China
    • U.S. supported non-Communist government in civil war with Communists
      • Nationalist Chinese defeated late 1949
      • China lobby blamed administration for failing to support enough aid
  • The Bomb
    • Soviets exploded device in September 1949
    • Ended U.S. nuclear monopoly
slide11

©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license.

Divided Germany and the NATO Alliance

nsc 68
NSC-68
  • Major administration review of nation’s foreign policy
  • Urged full-scale offensive to enlarge U..S. Power
    • Covert action
    • Economic pressure
    • More vigorous propaganda
    • Massive military buildup
  • Label efforts “defensive” to guarantee public support
the korean war
The Korean War
  • Communist North Korea attacked non-Communist South, June 1950
    • Truman administration saw Soviets as instigators
  • Review of background
    • Japanese Occupation, 1905-1945
    • Postwar division at 38th parallel
  • Fighting enlarged into international conflict
  • U.S. goals unclear
    • Push invasion force back above 38th parallel?
    • Total defeat of Communists and reunification under non-Communist leadership?
  • Course of war up and down for U.S.- led UN forces
    • Resulted in dismissal of General Douglas MacArthur
  • War had reached original line of demarcation by end of Truman’s term
slide14

©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license.

Korean War

korea and containment
Korea and Containment
  • War justified recommendations of NSC-68
  • Administration took many steps to pursue the nation’s interests abroad
  • Increase in military budgets and bureaucracies
  • Nation came to oppose any political movement that was left-leaning
  • Containment framed in defensive terms
  • Nation staked out global interests after 1947
containment at home
Containment at Home
  • Anticommunism and the Labor Movement
    • Labor Management Relations Act (Taft-Hartley), 1949
      • Limited gains unions had made during 1930s
      • Forced union leaders to eschew ties to communism
      • Truman vetoed, but Congress overrode
    • Communists in Unions became national security issue
  • House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)
    • Hearings into film industry initiated in 1947
      • Hollywood Ten
      • Studios drew up blacklist of so-called subversives
    • AlGER Hiss case
containment at home cont
Containment at Home (cont.)
  • Truman’s loyalty program in action
    • List of subversives to be detained in event of national security emergency
  • FBI dossiers on wide range of artists and intellectuals
  • McCarran-Walter Act, 1952
  • Homosexuals as targets of investigations
    • Justifiable basis for denying people government employment
the great fear
The “Great Fear”
  • The Rosenberg case
    • Cold War Melodrama
    • Remains subject for debate even today
  • Broad governmental powers to pursue suspected Communists
    • Dennis v. U.S. (1951)
    • McCarran Internal Security Act (1950)
      • Special detention camps for suspected subversives
      • Subversive Activities Control Board
      • Vetoed by Truman, but overridden
  • McCarthyism
    • Charged that Communists were at work in the State Department
    • Attacked those who criticized him, initially with great success
    • Supported by influential people in and out of government
employment act of 1946
Employment Act of 1946
  • Originally called for government intervention to ensure “full” employment
  • Eventually scaled back to provide “maximum” employment
  • “Full” sounded too much like socialism
  • Created Council of Economic Advisers
    • Focus on economic advice rather than formal planning
  • Assumption that prosperity was inevitable
truman s fair deal
Truman’s Fair Deal
  • Extension and expansion of New Deal
  • Some programs very popular
    • G.I. Bill (Serviceman”s Readjustment Act), 1944
    • Social Security
  • Others opposed vigorously
    • National health care opposed by medical community
    • Housing industry opposed publicly financed housing projects
  • Focused on programs for specific groups, such as veterans or the elderly, rather than more extensive programs for all
  • Civil Rights
    • Truman endorsed civil rights agenda in 1948 campaign
    • Supported school and housing desegregation efforts
social change and containment
Social Change and Containment
  • Jackie Robinson and the baseball “color line”
    • Robinson integrated major league baseball in 1947
    • By 1960, every major league team fielded black players
  • Postwar suburbs
    • Government encouraged suburban home ownership
      • Federal Housing Authority
    • Epitomized optimism about the future for residents
      • Avoid contact with minorities
    • The suburban family and gender issues
social change and containment cont
Social Change and Containment (cont.)
    • Life revolved around the automobile
    • Daily life fell into sex-segregated spheres
  • Changing roles for women
    • Not all women remained at home
    • Many married women, and even mothers, entered the workforce
      • Faced limited employment opportunities
    • Effect o f Baby Boom
slide23

©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license.

The Baby Boom

from truman to eisenhower
From Truman to Eisenhower
  • The Election of 1952
    • Democrats on the Defensive
      • Adlai Stevenson took anti-Communist stance, but it was not enough to win
    • Republicans ran Dwight D. Eisenhower and Richard M. Nixon
      • Won significant victory
  • Eisenhower in office
    • Advocated “moderate Republicanism”
    • Ended war in Korea
    • Wrested control of anti-Communist issue from McCarthy
    • Considered skilled leader who increased executive branch power
slide25

©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license.

Presidential Election, 1952

Web