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Structural Form. The part of a structure that must transmit applied loads is the structural system. The mode of transmission is a function of geometrical configuration, or form. The basic modes, or “actions” may be: Tension Compression Flexure (Bending) Shear [Torsion (Twisting, Shear)]

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slide1

Structural Form

The part of a structure that must transmit applied loads is the structural system.

The mode of transmission is a function of geometrical configuration, or form.

The basic modes, or “actions” may be:

Tension

Compression

Flexure (Bending)

Shear

[Torsion (Twisting, Shear)]

These may be combined in many structural forms, as seen in the following examples:

Notes: Structural Actions, Form and Systems

slide2

Godden, B47

Basic Structural Elements: Tension—The Tie Rod

  • Single, axial-force element
  • Studied in ENGRD 202

Idealized

Real

Notes: Structural Actions, Form and Systems

slide3

Basic Structural Elements: Tension--The Cable

  • Single, axial, tensile force element
  • Form-active

Idealized

Real

Notes: Structural Actions, Form and Systems

slide4

Column

Beam-Column

Metallic Shapes

Godden, F43

RC Shapes

Basic Structural Elements:

Compression--The Column

Idealized

  • Multiple Force: Axial, Shear, Moment
  • Studied in ENGRD 202

Real

Notes: Structural Actions, Form and Systems

slide5

Idealized

RC Arch

No Hinges

Godden, B28

Real: 3 Hinges

Basic Structural Elements: Compression--The Arch

  • Can be single force = Funicular, or...
  • Multiple Force: Axial, Shear, Moment
  • Can Have 1, 2, or 3 Hinges

Notes: Structural Actions, Form and Systems

slide6

Tapered/Haunched

Built-Up

Idealized

Basic Structural Elements:

Flexure--The Beam

Beam: A Multiple Force Element

  • Multiple Force: Shear, Moment, Axial
  • Studied in ENGRD 202

Simply Supported

Cantilever

Fixed-Fixed

Multiple span continuous

Godden A56

Real

Notes: Structural Actions, Form and Systems

slide7

Basic Elements May Be Simplifications

of 2D and 3D Surface Elements

1D Rod [Shear on non-orthogonal section]

2D Plate in Biaxial Tension (“Plane Stress”)

[Note: if S1 S2, shear will be present]

Notes: Structural Actions, Form and Systems

slide8

1D Beam

[Torsion?]

Godden, F80

Real

2D Plate in Bending

[Twisting possible]

Basic Elements May Be Simplifications

of 2D and 3D Surface Elements

Idealized

Notes: Structural Actions, Form and Systems

slide9

Cable

Godden, E35.3

Real

Pressure Vessel/Membrane

Basic Elements May Be Simplifications

of 2D and 3D Surface Elements

Idealized

Notes: Structural Actions, Form and Systems

slide10

Arch

Godden E35.1

Real

Shell:eg. Dome

Basic Elements Are Simplifications

of 2D and 3D Surface Elements

Idealized

Notes: Structural Actions, Form and Systems

slide11

Real Gear

Idealized Transmission

Represented with Finite Elements

Idealized Geometry

Model of Gear

It May Not Be Feasible/Useful to Simplify Complicated Solids

Notes: Structural Actions, Form and Systems

slide12

Idealized

Godden, F64

Real

Basic Elements Can Be Combined Into Structural Systems

Beams + Columns = Frame

Notes: Structural Actions, Form and Systems

slide13

Real

Basic Elements Can Be Combined Into Structural Systems

Tie Rods + Columns = Truss

Idealized

Notes: Structural Actions, Form and Systems

slide14

Real

Basic Elements Can Be Combined Into Structural Systems

Beam/columns + shell = aircraft fuselage

Idealized Section

Represented with Finite Elements

Notes: Structural Actions, Form and Systems

slide15

Godden, D67

Real

Some Planar Structural Systems

Are Simplifications of 3D Systems

Idealized

Plane Truss

Space Truss

Notes: Structural Actions, Form and Systems

slide16

Idealized

Plane Frame

Godden, F62

Real

Space Frame

Some Planar Structural Systems

Are Simplifications of 3D Systems

Notes: Structural Actions, Form and Systems