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Chapter 3 Theories of Creativity and the CPS Process. Many of the technological achievements we see today are the product of a chain of creative thought and problem solving conducted by several different researchers. Television!. CPS in Top Management. Limited application of Analytic planning

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chapter 3 theories of creativity and the cps process

Chapter 3Theories of Creativity and the CPS Process

Many of the technological achievements we see today are the product of a chain of creative thought and problem solving conducted by several different researchers.


cps in top management
CPS in Top Management
  • Limited application of Analytic planning
  • Interconnected networks of problems verses isolated problems
  • ‘high intuition’ (not guesswork)
    • rapid pattern recognition
    • solutions generated
    • solutions regenerated (new information)
ideation idea generation source
Ideation- Idea Generation Source
  • Human experience and understanding!
    • From Knowledge
      • Observation of the external world
      • Awareness of our own internal ruminations on these observations
  • ‘Knowledge’
    • More than remembered observations and includes some form of interpretation of these observations
  • Ideas may not merely come into and go out of our awareness like randomly displayed data elements, but instead can be consciously related to each other in ways that we begin to find useful, interesting, satisfying or even entertaining.
  • Idea processing takes individual ideas and manipulates, synthesises and associates them with one another until they form a larger contextual pattern that we can consciously relate to some human concern or problem.
whole brain model
Whole Brain Model
  • Two cerebral hemispheres – a left and a right.
    • Mental process includes vision, hearing, body senses, reasoning, language, non-verbal visualization ….
  • Each hemisphere is to be found one half of the limbic system
    • control centre that governs such things as hunger, thirst, sleeping, waking, body temperature, heart rate, blood pressure, emotions…
    • plays an important role in transferring incoming information into memory
  • Cerebral
    • Involving intelligence rather than emotions or instinct
  • Limbic
    • A border or edge of any of various body parts distinguished by color or structure
the whole brain four quadrant model
The Whole Brain/Four-Quadrant Model

Fibers connect the two cerebral hemispheres.

the whole brain four quadrant model1
The Whole Brain/Four-Quadrant Model

Cerebral Hemisphere

Preparation & Verification

Incubation & Illumination

Limbic System

the whole brain four q model
The Whole Brain/Four-Q Model

Cerebral System

Preparation & Verification

Incubation & Illumination

Limbic System

sherlock homes
Sherlock Homes
  • "When you have eliminated the impossible, whatever remains, however improbable, must be the truth." ~ Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
albert einstein
Albert Einstein
  • "Imagination is more important than knowledge."~ Albert Einstein
    • What it would be like to ride on a beam of light?
      • Special theory of relativity.
divergent convergent thinking1
Divergent & Convergent Thinking ...

Creative Thinking?

Used in isolation , intermixed

Standard IQ tests





Vertical thinking digs the same hole deeper; lateral thinking is concerned with digging a hole in another place

A divergent approach can be used on the way to a convergent solution


Leonardo da Vinci’s ~ Mona Lisa Einstein’s equation ~ E= MC²Design of the Opera house, Sydney AustraliaGone with the Wind, Margaret MitchellFuture Shock, Alvin TofflerMelting clocks ~ Salvador Dali

the right question

The right question

How can divergent and convergent thinking be improved and utilized for CPS

routine problem solving
Not all problems require the use of a CPS process.

In some cases a CPS process would not be as useful as an existing routine or ready-made solution.

These kind of solutions generally exist for recurring problems, and when it is possible to use one, it is often much quicker and more practical.

Routine Problem Solving
theories of creativity grace
Creativity is something of a mystery, drawing forth images of wonderful insights, imaginative efforts, illumination and intuitions that come from nowhere.

It seems the work of magic.

The idea of genius may add force to this notion since creative artists, musicians, etc. seemed to be endowed with superhuman potential.

Creativity in this sense is seen as a divine gift.

Theories Of Creativity - Grace
theories of creativity accident
This is the opposite of it being a divine gift.

It rises by chance.

Holders of this view offer various types of accidental discoveries such as those of immunisation arising from an interruption in work, radioactivity from the wrong hypothesis, and the smallpox vaccination from observation.

Theories Of Creativity - Accident
theories of creativity association
The most popular theory

Suggests applying procedures from one area to another

Underlies the justification for many divergent thinking techniques such as lateral thinking and brainstorming

Theories Of Creativity - Association
theories of creativity cognitive
Creativity is a normal human activity

It uses cognitive processes like recognition, reasoning and understanding

Theories Of Creativity - Cognitive
theories of creativity personality
Creativity is a state of mind which can be learned

Some people seem to have a facility for it while others do not, but they can improve with practice

Mental barriers to creativity have to be removed to allow innate spontaneity to flourish

Creative acts are not isolated acts of perception, they require an emotional disposition too, for any new idea replaces and in effect destroys the previous order

It takes courage and persistence to brave the resistance that any change seems to engender

Theories Of Creativity - Personality
the cognitive theory of creativity
The Cognitive Theory Of Creativity
  • "the act or process of knowing in the broadest sense; specifically, an intellectual process by which knowledge is gained from perception or ideas” (Cognition: Webster's Dictionary).
  • Study of the process of applying our cognitive processes to evaluating arguments (propositions) and making decisions
at the core of the thinking process is memory information processing
At the core of the thinking process is memory- Information Processing
  • Long term memory - large capacity
  • Short term memory - small capacity
  • Accessing large volume of long term memory via short term memory- bottleneck
    • Creative problem solving aids are used to compensate for the bottleneck
    • Also affected by perceptual filters
  • Complex networks of information
    • Making the connections along/across
ai cognitive science
AI & Cognitive Science
  • Schemas known as scripts and deltacts
    • Useful dealing with problems
    • Scripts are stereotyped responses based on experience
      • Guides behavior (think and say)
    • Deltacts (from goal directed behavior)
    • sub-goals and associated plans
  • Scripts assembled from smaller data elements called MOPS (memory organization packets)
    • organize experiences
the index metaphor
The index metaphor
  • The index metaphor supposes that we store all our information, knowledge and experience in a huge ‘mental book’ which has an index and cross-referencing facilities.
    • The index provides us with a number of references to entries regarding the information we have related to the subject of the problem
    • Look up each of these
      • the kind of information that we need for PS
  • Exact fit not available
    • Cross-references under various headings (MOPS) in the mental book which enable us to put together sufficient information (a new schema or script) to solve the problem


















The huge mental book is, of course, being constantly updated with new material and adjustments made to the index. New cross-references (MOPS) are also entered. A cross-reference (MOP) may be entered every time two apparently unrelated, weakly related or unrelated events seem to have a particular bearing on a particular matter. The cross-references (MOPS) may fade with time if they are not subsequently reinforced with evidence to support their usefulness.

analogical reasoning
Analogical Reasoning
  • Analogical reasoning allows the individual to map the current experience on to a template that has been derived from previous experiences.
  • Pieces must fit together in a cohesive pattern.
    • Typically birds can fly, so …
problem solving method ideal bransford and stein 1993
Problem Solving MethodIDEAL- Bransford and Stein (1993)
  • I = Identify problems and opportunities.
    • Crude Water Filters
  • D = Define goals.
    • Mission/Vision/Strategy
    • Deciding which one to choose
  • E = Explore possible strategies
    • Consider relevant information (short-term memory)
  • A = Anticipate outcomes and act.
    • Contingency plans
  • L = Look back and learn.

When trying to solve a problem the emphasis should be on finding the first step rather than on trying to find a complete solution immediately.


Conditions for creativity

Neuro-physiological structure of the brain: Four Qs, Fiber connectors, Comm. between Qs

Other explanations of creativity: Association Chance Divine gift Personality

Cognitive theory of creativity: creation and retrieval of schemas from memory

Convergent and

divergent thinking

The index metaphor: How we get ideas Searching the mental book Cross-references Stuckness The need for CPS mechanisms

Problem solving theories

CPS Theories

The CPS process


Mid-One | 4th MarchCovers: Chapter 1,2,3Find Problems on-siteSubmit office document(s)In home exam2 day time limit

thinking outside the box
Thinking outside the box
  • The "nine dots" puzzle. The goal of the
  • puzzle is to link all 9 dots using four straight
  • lines or less, without lifting the pen.

Assignment: PW-1 (Group Project) Due 28th FebCreate a company of your ownOpen your companies “Facebook” pageFill in all relevant informationReportLink to your facebook pageList three major problems you encountered during the process and how you solve it (or why you could not solve it)Explain the different quadrant you used and the time spent on each of these (Hint: The Whole Brain/Four-Quadrant Model)

sample problems
Sample problems
  • You wish to avoid stale-mate in chess
  • You wish to become a better footballer
  • You wish to start a new company
  • You wish to get a job at GrameenPhone
  • You wish to get a job at City Bank
  • It is the evening before an exam, the text book you need is unavailable in the library and the bookshop is closed.
  • You have upgraded your computer from Windows 2000 to Windows Vista and want to perform certain operations as before
chapter organization
Chapter Organization
  • Ideation process
  • Some of the ideas by the neuro-physiological functioning of the brain
    • Whole-brain and two-brain theories
  • Connection between the NP functioning and the cognitive theory of CPS
  • Theory of creative thinking
    • divergent and convergent thinking
    • conditions for ideation
  • Creative problem solving & the paradigm of creative thinking
    • Cognitive approach
    • Processes of CPS
  • Whole brain model
  • Walla’s model of the creative process
  • Divergent and convergent thinking
  • Conditions of creative thinking
  • Theories of creative problem solving
  • Information processing
  • ‘IDEAL’ problem solving process
  • Creative Problem Solving