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Chapter 12: Life-Span Sexual Development. For use with Human Sexuality Today (4 th Ed.) Bruce King Slides prepared by: Traci Craig. Chapter Overview. Infancy Early Childhood School-age years Puberty Adolescence Emerging Adulthood Young Adulthood Middle Age Elderly Years.

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chapter 12 life span sexual development

Chapter 12: Life-Span Sexual Development

For use with Human Sexuality Today (4th Ed.)

Bruce King

Slides prepared by: Traci Craig

chapter overview
Chapter Overview
  • Infancy
  • Early Childhood
  • School-age years
  • Puberty
  • Adolescence
  • Emerging Adulthood
  • Young Adulthood
  • Middle Age
  • Elderly Years
infancy ages 0 1
Infancy (Ages 0-1)
  • Male fetuses can have erections
  • Baby girls can have vaginal lubrication within 24 hours of birth
  • Bonding: hold and cuddle infants
  • Infants show reflexive arousal when nursing
  • Random behavior may lead to discovery of pleasurable sensation, which is then repeated.
early childhood ages 2 6
Early Childhood (Ages 2-6)
  • Egocentric children explore primarily their own bodies prior to age 2
  • After age 2, interest in the genitals is common.
  • Undressing and sexual exploration games from 3-5. (viewing and touching genitals)
    • Usually games with same-sex children
    • More aggressive sexual behavior may indicate abuse.
early childhood
Early Childhood
  • Curiositywatch others bathe, urinate
  • Parental response is important—overreacting may cause future negative feelings about their bodies.
  • Focus on private vs. public behavior
  • Parent reactions are often reflections of how the parents feel about their own sexuality.
school age years ages 7 11
School-age Years (Ages 7-11)
  • Demanding privacy in the bathroom
  • Modesty and inhibition about exposing their bodies
  • Sexual play does continue, just more hidden from parents
  • Girls more likely than boys to receive negative reactions about sexual exploration.
puberty ages 7 15
Puberty (Ages 7-15)
  • Show sexual attraction and capable of reproduction
  • Two part process
    • Adrenal glands mature—increase in androgens
    • Maturing gonads—ovaries and testes mature
  • Secondary sex characteristics
puberty girls
Puberty: Girls
  • Growth spurt—girls taller than boys
  • Breast developmentnot hidden
  • Increase in fatty deposits in the hips and buttocks
  • Pubic hair appear and a couple years later axillary hair
  • Body odor and acne accompany increase in male hormones.
puberty girls9
Puberty: Girls
  • Vagina and uterus enlarge
  • Menarche—between 12 & 13 (this age is dropping)
  • “becoming a woman” vs. “curse” will influence self-esteem
  • No prior informationvery frightening
  • Topic of crude jokes and many negative messages.
puberty boys
Puberty: Boys
  • About 2 years behind girls.
  • Testes, scrotum, penis, prostate, and seminal vesicles grow
  • Capable of ejaculation about a year after growth began
  • Nocturnal emissionboys usually not given much information, not under voluntary control
puberty boys11
Puberty: Boys
  • Gynecomastia: temporarily enlarged breasts—goes away by mid-teens
  • Pubic hair grows and two years later, facial and underarm hair
  • Amount of body hair is hereditary
  • Acne and body odor
  • Deepening voice—voice box grows
precocious and delayed puberty
Precocious and Delayed Puberty
  • Usually puberty starts at 11 or 12
  • Before age 9 precocious puberty
    • Environmental estrogens may cause early appearance of secondary sex characteristics
  • Delayed puberty is often treated with hormones.
sexual behavior
Sexual Behavior
  • Sexual attraction usually around age 10
  • Both boys and girls have enaged in masturbation to orgasm usually prior to 12
  • Age 13sexual exploration games
    • Spin the bottle
    • Post office
adolescence ages 13 17
Adolescence (Ages 13-17)
  • Self-identity
    • Body image and physical characteristics
  • Maturbation
    • Frequency: males 1.8 times per week; females .5 times per week (at age 15)
    • Outlet for sexual tension, sexual experimentation, sexual self-confidence, and control of sexual impulses
    • Important for girls  more fulfilling adult experiences.
adolescence
Adolescence
  • Masturbation: powerful predictor of adult sexuality
  • Petting: erotic stimulation without intercourse (below the waist)—80% of teens
  • Half of high school students are virgins, but a 1/3 of them have engaged in genital stimulation with a partner.
adolescence16
Adolescence
  • Sexual Intercourse: 58% of people believe premarital sex is wrong
  • What is sex? Anal? Oral?
  • Teen pregnancy and birth rates declined in the 1990s
  • Different reasons for having sex
    • Girls: love and commitment make sex ok
    • Boys: never miss an opportunity
adolescence17
Adolescence
  • First intercourse:
    • 25% of girls say they did not want to have sex.
    • 33% of girls report physical pain/ 28% no pain
    • Positive experiences: history of sex play, positive attitudes about sex play, and safe environment with a caring partner
    • Negative experience: gave in to partner, no planning, and little experience with sex play.
adolescence18
Adolescence
  • Peer pressure: half of boys are motivated by curiosity to have sex
  • Desire for acceptance and to boost self-esteem might be one reason teens have sex.
  • Teens overestimate the number of teens having sex
  • Adolescent males see sex as competitive: an arena where one can ‘achieve and score’
adolescence19
Adolescence
  • Teen girls may mistake sexual intimacy for emotional intimacy
  • Double standardsnegative experiences for teen girls
  • New peer pressure to abstain may be cause for the reduction in number of teens having sex.
emerging adulthood ages 18 25
Emerging Adulthood(Ages 18-25)
  • Age of marriage has increased to 25 for women and 27 for men.
  • Longer period of single adulthood
  • Ambiguous about self identifying as adults
  • Dating, relationships, and love take on new importance
  • Common in more advanced cultures.
emerging adulthood
Emerging Adulthood
  • 80% of men and women in this age of had premarital sex
  • 20% of unmarried women have had 4 or more partners in the past 4 years.
  • Sexual experimentation
  • 86% of women and 71% of men said it was difficult to have sex without emotional involvement.
emerging adulthood22
Emerging Adulthood
  • Serial monogamy—a series of relationships in which sex is reserved for just one other person
  • Less influence of peer pressure and more understanding of personal sexual motivation
  • Sexual self-schemas
  • Erotophilia/Erotophobia
young adulthood ages 26 39
Young Adulthood (Ages 26-39)
  • Long-lasting monogamy
  • Sex with only one partner in the last year
  • Marriage: Sexual frequency in the first year15 times per month
  • Married women more likely to experience orgasm
  • Frequency drops with other time demands, parenthood, novelty wears off.
young adulthood
Young Adulthood
  • Marriage: variety of sexual techniques
  • People with partners more likely to masturbate than people without partners.
  • Cohabitation: 700% increase in cohabiting since 1970
  • Living together as a test or trial before marriage
  • 54% of marriages begin as cohabitation
young adulthood25
Young Adulthood
  • Commitment levels vary for cohabitation
  • Easier to walk away from the relationship (than in marriage)
  • ½ of these arrangements end within years.
  • Higher divorce rate for cohabitorsreduce expectations about marriage, greater tolerance of divorce
young adulthood26
Young Adulthood
  • Extramarital sex (in monogamous marriage)
    • 37% of men and 20% of women have had a sexual affair
    • Same rate for married as for cohabiting couples
    • 90% believe extramarital sex is wrong.
    • The majority of men over 45 think it is ok
    • Men more concerned about sexual fidelity, women more concerned about emotional fidelity
young adulthood27
Young Adulthood
  • Open marriage: partners agree sex with others is ok.
  • 15% of couples may have some sort of ‘understanding’
  • Divorce rate is similar to sexually monogamous couples.
  • Sexual jealousy is usually not the reason for break up of the relationship.
young adulthood28
Young Adulthood
  • Swinging—extramarital relations as a couple
  • Ads, magazines, clubs, private parties—usually male homosexuality is not part of the arrangement
  • Swingers seem to be demographically similar to non-swingers
  • Short-lived experience—feelings of jealousy, sexual inadequacy or rejection.
middleage ages 40 59
Middleage (Ages 40-59)
  • Sex for procreationpast reproductive age so thought to be asexual
  • Difficulty accepting the idea of parents or grandparents being sexually active.
  • Current attitudes about sex predict future attitudes about sex.
  • 5-6 times per month
middleage
Middleage
  • Modern Maturity—over half of 45-54 year olds have sex at least once a week
  • Sex is more important to 30-50 year olds than to 20 year olds.
  • Emotional intimacy is related to relationship quality
  • Sexual equilibrium in the couple
middleage31
Middleage
  • Losing a mate: No clear expectations about dating for divorced or widowed adults
  • 75% of only one or no partners a year after a divorce
  • Men have more opportunities, (singles: F:M, 2:1)
  • Age differences more accepted for men than women.
middleage32
Middleage
  • Menstrual irregularity in women after age 35.
  • Menopause—cessation of menstruation
    • late 40s early 50s
    • Hot flashes, flushing, sweating, nausea, feelings of suffocation
    • Vagina walls are thinner and less elastic, decreased lubrication
middleage33
Middleage
  • Menopause treated with Hormone Replacement Therapy
    • Helps with physical symptoms
    • Prevents osteoporosis, colon cancer, aging skin
    • Increase risk of breast and endometrial cancer
    • Quality of life is reported as better
  • Natural herbal supplements
middleage female sexuality
Middleage: Female Sexuality
  • Few show a decline in interest, some even increase
  • Sexual activity when younger predicts sexual activity when older
  • Regular sexual activity decreases vaginal atrophy.
  • Masturbation rates do not change
  • Empty nest syndrome may cause depression and cause a drop in sexual interest
middleage male sexuality
Middleage: Male Sexuality
  • No sudden change in hormones: gradual decline
  • Decreased sensitivity of the penis, longer to become erect and less firm erection, shrinkage of testicles, less forceful ejaculation, and a longer refractory period.
  • Sperm production declines after 40.
  • No change in masturbation rates.
elderly age 60
Elderly (Age 60+)
  • Society regards them as asexual
  • People who have partners:
    • At 60, 70% have sex regularly, 50% at least once a week.
    • At 70, 33% at least once a week
    • At 80, 25% at least once a month
  • Decline with age, but still some activity.
elderly
Elderly
  • Sexual activity often limited by living arrangements and availability of partners.
  • Women report partners are more romantic
  • Partner gap: women outlive men, women have fewer partner choices
  • 43-47% of the elderly report a medical problem that prevents sex.
elderly38
Elderly
  • Opportunities for privacy may decline with age—nursing homes, dependent living.
  • Sexual expression is more than intercourse.
  • The largest barrier for sexual expression in this age group may be the stereotypes about elderly sexuality.