Identities and the Implications of Group Membership: Religion for EDUC 709Dr. Jennings and Dr. Kottkepresented byAllan AabCynthia SpenceCatherine Terrell
Man is a goal seeking animal. His life only has meaning if he is reaching out and striving for his goals. - Aristotle
religion as proxy • Practices replace belief • Ramadan, Christmas tree, Menorah
presupmption of religion • An individual’s race creates presumption of religious affiliation • The “other” Located between white and black Phenotypical markers: Light to dark brown skin Brown or black hair Round eyes (East Asian: almond-shape) “the Jewish nose” Cultural = Religious markers Sari or Salwaarkameez (South Asian) Bindi “dot” (Hindu) Hijab “veil” (Muslim) Dastaar “turbin” (Muslim, Sikhs)
presupmption of religion • Meltability an immigrant’s skin color could melt into the dominant culture • Unmeltability an immigrant’s skin color could not melt into the dominant culture • Historically, brown-skinned - have been on both sides of white and non-white argument (Suzuki, 1979)
stereotypes of religion • Involves Multiple processes and agents Leads to multiple outcomes Results in essentialism • “It reduces people to one aspect of their identity and thereby presents a homogeneous undifferentiated and static view of an ethnoreligious community ” (Joshi, 2006, p.212) • Jewish-American princess
race • Pseudo-scientific ideas of race-based classification Distinct races Hierarchically situated Biological determinant for cultural development • Jews are not just a religious group, they are ethnic/national/regional groups
race • the “other” Located between white and black Phenotypical markers: Light to dark brown skin Brown or black hair Round eyes (East Asian: almond-shape) Cultural = Religious markers Sari or Salwaarkameez (South Asian) Bindi “dot” (Hindu) Hijab “veil” (Muslim) Dastaar “turbin” (Muslim, Sikhs)
A reaction to white privilege in religion • “Facing the truth of white privilege underpinning the social, economic and political institutions of the North American culture, how shall we do justice? • “Knowing the truth of white privilege how do we divest from an institutionalized, unearned privilege and embrace a generous nature of equity for all in all that we do?” • Truth and wholeness: Replacing white privilege with God’s promise. The General Commission on Christian Unity and Interreligious Concerns and the General Commission on Race and Religion. The United Methodist Church. 2009
A reaction to white privilege in religion • “We cannot rest on self-prescribed laurels and pretend that we have already done all we can do to eliminate racism, white privilege, discrimination and clever tactics of subterfuge…” • Bishop Violet Fisher • Address to United Methodist General Conference • April 30, 2008
ethnicity • Ethnic groups share a sense of origins, history and cultural traits • “Ethnic identity development consists of an individual’s movement from a lack of identity awareness toward a highly conscious identification with her/his cultural values, behaviors, beliefs and traditions” (Mac-Donald-Dennis, 2006).
culture • American concepts of self are competitive within an unforgiving social structure • “Jewish discourse recognizes self as a member of a larger interdependent community that will no survive without the socially responsible acts of personal ethical contributions, the mizvah, that are required.” (Passman, R., 2002)
religion and sexuality • Gay men, lesbians, and bisexual men and women are no more likely than heterosexual men to leave their faith traditions. • Despite high participation rates, another sample of 1,749 gay men and lesbians ranked “church as the least supportive and most hostile of 12 potential sources of support.” • Rostosky, S. S.,Riggle, E. D. B., Brodnicki, C, & Olson, A. (2008). An exploration of lived religion in same-sex couples from Judeo-Christian traditions. Family Process, 47(3), 389-403.
assimilation • Assimilation welcomes a cross-cultural interface with the host nation • Ethnicity subsides as groups assimilate to US social norms and practices Passman, R. (2002). TikkunOlam (Repair the world), Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA.
acculturation • Living in the host nation yet maintaining essential beliefs and practices • Question terms – congregation, sect faith
social identity • In the US social identity is salient because of the multiple systems of oppression that exist • Minorities must understand impacts of dominant values and beliefs on their social identities
self-definition • Individuals develop multicultural identities • Finding a sense of self independent of oppression • Construction of identity (ies)
religious diversity • hierarchy of American religious identities • legal guarantees • increased religious diversity, considerations for social organization • dynamic relationships among diverse religions • potentials for misunderstandings • Diversity involves deep differences and requires that varying beliefs and practices be taken seriously
Christian hegemony • Religious affiliation is an essential human attribute • Christian hegemony Is not to be confused with the human urge to encounter the thing that is both one and indefinable • the racialization of religion in the US perpetuates the privilege of the dominant group and marginalizes minority religions • Christian groups, people, and organizations hold the power to define normalcy
Christian hegemony • Levels Institutional Societal Individual • “This in/out group phenomenon reinforces Christian hegemony at the institutional and cultural levels, and enables individual members of the 'in' group to rationalize (and perpetuate) the exclusion of religious 'others'“ (Joshi, 2006, p. 217).
Christian hegemony • “Whiteness and Christianity……the two strands of the double helix of American identity” (Joshi, 2006, p. 213) • Embracement of whiteness as the norm • Being non-Christian is an essential and irremediable flaw • A sense of danger associated with non-Christian religions – defining non-Christians as deviant – leading to violence, stereotyping, invisibility, distortion, isolation and oppression
implications for educational leaders • Bill of Rights : the First Amendment • “Prohibits the establishment of a national religion” or • “Separation of church and state”
implications for educational leaders • What was the original intent of the founding fathers? • Popular with conservatives • Emphasis on Protestant Christian practices (Seigler, 2003)
implications for educational leaders • Stare Decisis • Doctorial approach – based on precedent • Last four decades • “Lemon test” (Seigler, 2003)
implications for educational leaders • Everson v. Board of Education (1947) (+) • Transition cases • McCollum v. Board of Education (1948) (-) • Zorach v. Clauson (1952) (+) • Engel v. Vitale (1962) (-)
"All major religions are equally good ways of knowing about God" Robert Wuthnow • Fall Equinox • Winter Solstice • Spring Equinox • Summer Solstice (Montgomery & Tansits-Wenze, 2002)
Knowledge is the antidote to fear. - Ralph Waldo Emerson
coexist Playing for Change: Song Around the World
Christian Privilege: Invisible, Unearned, Largely Unacknowledged Array of Benefits Christian churches can become social networks Bob Oxnard Church of the Resurrection of Our Lord Realtor, Century 21 Sunbelt Realty #1, Inc. 13640 Six Mile Cypress Parkway, Fort Myers (239) 561-5645 email: email@example.comLet the Bob Oxnard Team work for you. We care! Specializing in Whiskey Creek and other residential properties located in South Fort Myers. John Spence McGregor Baptist Church Vice President, Moore & Spence Architects, P.A. 7290 College Pkwy., Suite 306, Fort Myers (239) 278-3520 email: John@MooreandSpence.com"Building our future on developing long term success with our clients"
Christian Privilege: Five Largest Christian Congregations in America • Lakewood Church (Houston, TX) :: Joel Osteen> 07 Attendance = 47,000> 06 Attendance = 45,000 (#1 in ‘06) • Willow Creek Community Church (South Barrington, IL) :: Bill Hybels> 07 Attendance = 23,500> 06 Attendance = 21,500 (#5 in ‘06) • Second Baptist Church (Houston, TX) :: Ed Young Sr.> 07 Attendance = 23,198> 06 Attendance = 22,266 (#3 in ‘06) • Saddleback Church (Lake Forest, CA) :: Rich Warren> 07 Attendance = 22,000> 06 Attendance = 20,595 (#6 in ‘06) • Life Church (Edmond, OK) :: Craig Groeschel> 07 Attendance = 19,907> 06 Attendance = 16,071 (#13 in ‘06)
Christian Privilege: Politics and Christianity "This is not a decision that I come to lightly, and frankly it's one that I made with some sadness," Obama told reporters in Aberdeen, S.D. "Trinity was where I found Jesus Christ, where we were married, where our children were baptized. We have many friends among the 8,000 congregants." President Barack Obama
Christians Dominate Social Realities: Marriage What's Really at Stake in the Gay Marriage Debate? Part Four By R. Albert Mohler, Jr. Christian Post Guest Columnist Wed, Oct. 29 2008 08:09 AM EDT There is great wisdom in Sowell's analysis, and in his book, The Conflict of Visions. But the greatest achievement of this book is Sowell's insistence that political struggles have ideological origins. This is certainly true with reference to the political struggle over same-sex marriage. In California, the controversy is over "Proposition 8" on the November ballot - a measure that would amend the state's constitution to establish marriage as the union of a man and a woman. Voters in Arizona and Florida will face measures that would disallow same-sex marriages. Nationwide, we face efforts to repeal the Defense of Marriage Act (a repeal championed by Sen. Barack Obama) and to achieve same-sex marriage through the courts. State by state, the issue is constantly reshaped and reframed. At the same time, there is a sense that the public is shifting its perception of the issue. When the issue is framed as simple fairness, Americans increasingly seem to tire of arguing that sexual behavior or orientation (at least in terms of homosexuality) should matter when it comes to the basic rights associated with marriage. This trend is especially noticeable among the young. Younger Americans, by and large, see homosexuality as part of the recognizable landscape and within the normal range of human behaviors. All this represents a massive shift in perception over a relatively short period of time. The activists promoting the normalization of homosexuality have been tremendously successful in their efforts. The mainstream media, the educational elites, and various culture shapers have pushed this cause. Today, on the average college or university campus, homosexuality is not considered to be a major moral issue. Any discrimination against homosexuals, on the other hand, is considered a moral issue of urgency and outrage. In much of the culture, it is considered increasingly immoral to assert that homosexuality is immoral.
“That’s the God’s honest truth” “Spare the rod and spoil the child” “Cleanliness is next to Godliness” “An eye-for-an-eye” “Forgive and forget” “I swear to God” “I swear on the Holy Bible” “I swear to tell the truth and nothing but the truth so help me God” “You reap what you sow” “She has the patience of Job” ““She’s just a Jezebel” “Don’t be a Judas” You’re an angel” “He has the wisdom of Solomon” “Don’t crucify me” “He’s on a crusade” “It’s the gospel according to…” “God damn it!” “Jesus Christ!” “Go to Hell!” “Stairway to Heaven” “God Bless America” Hegemony is Advanced through Discourses: Common Phrases
Hegemony is Advanced Through Discourse: Capital Letters Holy Bible Names for the Bible – Capitalize all names for the Bible, for parts and versions of the Bible and all names of other sacred books. Examples: Bible Scriptures Word of God Holy Bible Old Testament New Testament Gospels Ten Commandments Lord’s Prayer Gospels Gospel of Luke King James Version New International Version Creeds and Confessions – Capitalize all names of creeds and confessions of faith and general Biblical terms. Examples: Lord’s Supper the Apostles’ Creed the Westminster Catechism Nicene Creed Deity - Capitalize all names for Deity Examples: Father Almighty God Lord Holy Spirit Son of Man Messiah Lord of Hosts Redeemer Savior Holy Trinity Devil - Capitalize all names for the Devil Examples: Devil Satan Adversary Father of Lies Evil One Lucifer Prince of Darkness Beelzebub (meaning Satan)* Do not capitalize when used in a general sense or as an expletive. libraryonline.com
Hegemony is Advanced through Discourses: Currency Annuit Coeptis on the Great Seal of the United States of America, condensed by Charles Thompson, designer of the seal in its final form, from L. Juppiter omnipotes, audacibus annue coeptis "All-powerful Jupiter favor (my) daring undertakings," line 625 of book IX of Virgil's "Aeneid." The words also appear in Virgil's "Georgics," book I, line 40: Da facilem cursam, atque audacibus annue coeptis "Give (me) an easy course, and favor (my) daring undertakings." Thompson changed the imperative annue to annuit, the third person singular form of the same verb in either the present tense or the perfect tense. The motto also lacks a subject. The motto is often translated as "He (God) is favorable to our undertakings," but this is not the only possible translation. Thomson wrote: "The pyramid signifies Strength and Duration: The Eye over it & Motto allude to the many signal interpositions of providence in favour of the American cause." The original design (by William Barton) showed the pyramid and the motto Deo Favente Perennis "God favoring through the years."
Marginalization: School HolidaysDesert Sands Unified School District • 9/1/2008 Labor Day • 11/10/2008 Veteran's Day • 11/26 - 11/28 2008 Thanksgiving Break • 1/19/2009 Martin Luther King Day • 12/22 - 1/5 2009Winter Break • 2/13/2009 Lincoln's Day Observance • 2/16/2009 Presidents' Day • 4/13-4/17 Spring Break • 5/25/2009 Memorial Day
MARCH 2009 2 Lent begins - Clean Monday - Orthodox Christian 8 Orthodox Sunday - Orthodox Christian 9 Mawlid an Nabi * ** - Islamcommemoration of the birthday of Prophet Muhammad 10 Purim * - Jewish celebration of the deliverance of the Jewish minority in Persia from genocide 11 Holi ** - Hindu spring festival dedicated to the god of pleasure Hola Mohala - Sikh A Sikh day when mock battles are fought and martial arts are displayed 13 L. Ron Hubbard birthday - Scientology 17 St Patrick's Day - Christian 21 Equinox Ostara * - Wicca - Northern Hemisphere Mabon * - Wicca - Southern Hemisphere Norouz (New Year) - Persian/Zoroastrian Naw Ruz (New Year) - Baha'i 25 Annunciation of Virgin Mary - Christian 26 Khordad Sal (Birth of Prophet Zaranhushtra) Zoroastrian 27 New Year ** - Hindu 29 Passion Sunday ** - Christian Marginalization : Religious Holidays
APRIL 2009 3 Ramanavami ** - Hinducelebration of the birth of Lord Rama, 5 Palm Sunday - Christian 8 Vesak - Buddha's Birth (Buddhist) 9-10 Pesach (Passover) first two days * - Jewish 9-12 Theravadin New Year ** - Buddhist 9 Lord's Evening Meal - Jehovah's Witness Christian Maundy Thursday - Christian Hanuman Jayanti - Hindu celebration of Hanuman who was an embodiment of Lord Rama. Devotion and selfless work are encouraged. 10 Good Friday - Christian 12 Easter - Christian Palm Sunday - Orthodox Christian 13 Easter Monday Christian 14 Baisakhi - Sikh Hindu start of the New Years. Greetings that wish good life in coming days are exchanged. 15-16 Pesach (Passover) final two days * - Jewish 11 Lazarus Saturday - Orthodox Christian 17 Holy Friday- Orthodox Christian 19 Easter/Pascha - Orthodox Christian 21 Yom HaSho'ah * - Jewish Holocaust Day. The day has been established to remember the six million Jews killed by the Nazis in 1933-45 First Day of Ridvan * - Baha'i commemoration of the twelve day period in 1863 when Baha'u'llah declared that he was God's messenger for this age 23 Saint George's Day - Christian Marginalization : Religious Holidays
Marginalization: Christian Crossas a Memorial Symbol San Diego religious symbol’s display on public land violates Constitution, Church-State watchdog group argues The Christian cross is not an appropriate symbol to memorialize deceased veterans of many different faith perspectives and should not be displayed on government property, Americans United for Separation of Church and State has told a federal appeals court. Americans United and other religious and civil liberties groups today asked the 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals to overturn a lower court’s ruling holding that the Mt. Soledad cross in San Diego is a secular war memorial. “American service personnel come from many different faiths and some follow no spiritual path at all,” said the Rev. Barry W. Lynn, executive director of Americans United. “It is disrespectful to our deceased veterans to use the symbol of only one faith to memorialize them all. By Christine Anne Piesyk January 17, 2009 Clarksville Online
Marginalization: Christian Crossas a Memorial Symbol Mt. Soledad Cross is Safe for NowTuesday, August 05, 2008By Pete Winn, Senior Writer/Editor More than 170,000 people have signed the ACLJ's petitionto preserve the Mt. Soledad cross (CNSNews.com) – Most residents of San Diego, Calif., like the cross at the center of the city’s Mt. Soledad War Memorial – so much so that a local leader says if a court order ever forced the cross off the now-federally owned property it would seriously divide the city. “It would certainly result in a great deal of polarization in the community,” Bill Kellogg, president of the Mt. Soledad Memorial Association, told CNSNews. “I think the community cares very, very much about it – and I’ve heard reports about radio broadcasters and others wanting to chain themselves to the cross, that people want to lay in front of the bulldozers.” That is a little less likely to happen, however, given that a federal court ruled last week that the cross is constitutional and can stay on federal property.
Marginalization: Christian Crossas a Memorial Symbol “Attorney Expecting More Good News on Mt. Soledad Cross Case” (AgapePress) - A public-interest law firm representing parties who have fought to save San Diego's Mount Soledad cross now expects the Ninth U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals to rule moot a federal district judge's May 2006 order to have the cross removed. That's following last week's decision by a state appellate court that upheld Proposition A -- a 2005 ballot referendum transferring the property to the federal government for a war memorial.
Powerlessness: Religion in Prison • With a record-setting 2 million people now incarcerated in American jails and prisons, the United States has overtaken Russia and has a higher percentage of its citizens behind bars than any other country. • In 1987, the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that prison inmates retain constitutional rights, including that of religion. • A recent study suggests that the practice of religion in a prison setting significantly reduces inmates engagement in verbal or physical altercations. Additionally, a religious conversion increases the likelihood of reform after completing their prison sentence. • Religious groups are known to supply scripture and reading material, organize programs and worship, and train chaplains for work in prisons. The Baltimore Sun , June 1, 2003
Religion and Violence Faith Digest: Religious hate crimes dropped last year By Staff, Baptist Standard Published: November 07, 2008 Hate crimes directed against a person's religion decreased in 2007, but hate crimes against gays and lesbians increased slightly, according to the FBI's 2007 Hate Crimes Statistics. In 2006, the FBI reported 1,597 hate crimes motivated by a religious bias. That figure dropped to 1,477 in 2007, according to the report. Of the religiously based hate crimes, attacks against Jews rose from 64 percent in 2006 to 68 percent in 2007. Anti-Muslim hate crimes, meanwhile, decreased from 12 percent in 2006 to 9 percent in 2007. Hate crimes against Catholics accounted for 4 percent of the reported hate crimes motivated by religious biases -- down from 5 percent in 2006. Four percent of the hate crimes were motivated by anti-Protestant biases, and 9 percent were against other religions. Of the reported hate crimes motivated by religious bias, 18 percent occurred in churches, synagogues or temples; 26 percent occurred in or near residences or homes; and 12 percent occurred in schools or colleges. The FBI reported 1,415 hate crimes based on a person's sexual orientation in 2006 and 1,460 hate crimes in 2007. Of those offenses, 59 percent targeted gay men, 13 percent targeted lesbians, and 25 percent were more generally anti-homosexual.
Religion and Violence: United States Department of Justice 2006 Hate Crime Statistics
Marginalization: Gay Christians Ray Boltz Birth name Ray Boltz Born: 1953 Origin Muncie, Indiana, USA Genre(s) : Worship, Contemporary Christian Occupation(s): Singer-songwriter Years active 1990–present Website: Official Website RayBoltz.ComIn September 2008, Ray “came out” as a gay man but continues to minister in “open and affirming” churches.