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Classified based on Length of the carbon chain PowerPoint Presentation
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Classified based on Length of the carbon chain

Classified based on Length of the carbon chain

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Classified based on Length of the carbon chain

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  1. Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are aldehydes or ketones with –OH groups on the carbons that make up the chain. Classified based on Length of the carbon chain Location of the C=O aldehyde=aldo ketone=keto Family ending ose

  2. Example: aldo (from aldehyde) pent (from 5 carbons) ose (family name) ALDOPENTOSE

  3. Example • keto (from ketone) • hex (from 6 carbons) • ose (family name) KETOHEXOSE

  4. Fischer Projections

  5. CLASSIFICATIONS 1 sugar unit 2 sugar units 3-10 sugar units More than 10 sugar units

  6. CHIRALITY

  7. Chiral- compounds or objects that can not be superimposed on their mirror image. Object is different from its mirror image • Achiral- compounds or objects that can be superimposed on their mirror image. Object is the same as its mirror image

  8. CHIRAL MOLECULES

  9. A chiral carbon is one that has four different groups attached to it.

  10. EXAMPLES

  11. Fructose

  12. If a molecule is chiral, there are at least 2 forms (isomers) of the molecule. • Enantiomers- molecule and its mirror image

  13. CHIRAL MOLECULES

  14. Thalidomide * *

  15. Carvone * *

  16. Cyclic Monosaccharides Monosaccharides with 5 or more carbons exist as rings → → Haworth projection ALDOSE

  17. → Haworth projection Fischer projection KETOSE

  18. Important Monosaccharides • Glucose • Aldohexose • Most nutritionally important monosaccharide • Sometimes called dextrose or blood sugar

  19. Galactose • A component of lactose (milk sugar) • Aldohexose

  20. Fructose • Ketohexose • Sometimes called fruit sugar • Component of sucrose

  21. Disaccharides • Two monosaccharide units linked together Glycosidic Linkage (1→4) Glucose Glucose Maltose

  22. Important Disaccharides • Maltose • Glucose + Glucose • Malt sugar • Found in fermenting grains

  23. BEER C6H12O6 => 2CO2 + 2C2H5OH

  24. Lactose • Glucose + Galactose • Milk sugar

  25. Lactose Intolerance • Enzyme Lactase low or absent • Lactose fermented in the intestine • Nausea, cramps, bloating, gas, and diarrhea

  26. Sucrose • Fructose + Glucose (1→2) • Found in many plants (especially sugar cane, sugar beets) • Table sugar glucose fructose

  27. Polysaccharides • More than 10 monosaccharides linked together Glycosidic linkage

  28. Important Polysaccharides • Starch • Polymer of 30 to 1000 glucose units • Storage form of glucose in plants • Cereal grains (wheat, rice, corn, oats, barley) as well as tubers such as potatoes are rich in starch • Two forms: Amylose and Amylopectin

  29. Amylose

  30. Glycogen • Polymer of glucose units • Storage form of glucose in animals • Can have up to 600,000 glucose units • Mainly in liver and muscles • Structurally similar to amylopectin (1→4 and 1→6 links)

  31. Cellulose • Polymer of glucose units • Found in plant cell walls • Linear polymer like amylose, but has  (14)glycosidic linkages. • Not easily digested, a constituent of dietary fiber.

  32. Startch

  33. Bloodtypes