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Valence Electrons & Bohr Diagrams

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Valence Electrons & Bohr Diagrams. Atomic Structure. Atoms have a nucleus that contains Protons and Neutrons Electrons are contained in shells that surround the nucleus An atom is made of mostly empty space Protons have a positive charge Electrons have a negative charge

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atomic structure
Atomic Structure
  • Atoms have a nucleus that contains Protons and Neutrons
  • Electrons are contained in shells that surround the nucleus
  • An atom is made of mostly empty space
  • Protons have a positive charge
  • Electrons have a negative charge
  • Neutrons are Neutral
valence electrons
Valence Electrons
  • Each electron shell can hold a certain number of electrons
  • Electron shells are filled from the inside out
  • Noble Gases have full outer electron shells
  • All other elements have partiallyfilled outer electron shells
valence electrons1
Valence Electrons
  • The electrons in the outer most electron shell are called valence electrons
  • The shell containing electrons that is furthest from the nucleus is called the valence shell
  • The number of electron shells with electrons is the same as the period number
noble gas stability
Noble Gas Stability
  • Noble gases are usually unreactive
  • This is because they have full valence shells
  • An element with a full valence shell is a happy element 
  • For two atoms to join together atoms must gain, lose or share electrons
  • Elements with full valence shells do not easily gain or lose electrons
noble gas stability1
Noble Gas Stability
  • Atoms want to gain stability
  • Atoms will try to gain or lose electrons to have a full valence shell
  • Metals try to lose electrons
  • Non-Metals try to gain electrons
becoming an ion
Becoming An Ion
  • Electrons are negatively charged
  • Protons are positively charged
  • Neutral atoms do not have a charge because the number of protons is the same as the number of electrons
  • When atoms gain or lose electrons they become positively or negatively charged
  • An atom with a charge is called an Ion
bohr models
Bohr Models
  • Niels Bohr created a visual model of the atom to make them easy to understand
  • A Bohr Model contains a central nucleus surrounded by electron shells
  • For each model you state the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus and draw a dot on the electron shells for each electron
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