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RESERVE DESIGN. Review Case Studies in Reserve Design Cape Floristic Region, South Africa Marine Protected Areas, Bohol Island, Phillipines. RESERVE DESIGN. The Goal: A reserve system that includes and sustains all biodiversity and ecosystem processes of the region.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

RESERVE DESIGN

Review

Case Studies in Reserve Design

Cape Floristic Region, South Africa

Marine Protected Areas, Bohol Island, Phillipines

slide2

RESERVE DESIGN

The Goal:

A reserve system that includes and sustains all biodiversity and ecosystem processes of the region

We don’t have time to count everything

so

How do we assess “all” biodiversity quickly

slide3

What can we use as surrogates for overall biodiversity?

Flagship Species

No –charismatic but don’t capture other species

Umbrella Species

No

Biodiversity Indicators –

birds(lots info); dung beetles(easy to collect info)

No – hotspots for one taxa≠hotspots for others\

Land types -

land systems or vegetation classes

slide4

What can we use as surrogates for overall biodiversity?

Flagship Species

No –charismatic but don’t capture other species

Umbrella Species

No

Biodiversity Indicators –

birds(lots info); dung beetles(easy to collect info)

No – hotspots for one taxa≠hotspots for others\

Land types -

land systems or vegetation classes

eg 1 South Africa - YES

slide5

Evaluating use of landtypes in reserve design

Cape Floristic Region, SA

122,000 km2 - > 6000 endemic plant species

UNESCO World heritage site

slide6

Evaluating use of landtypes in reserve design

Cape Floristic Region, SA

122,000 km2

102 broad habitat units (untransformed land)

vegetation

climate

geology

topography

Reserve selection -

current reserve selected

+ minimum set to achieve conservation target (%) by BHU

slide7

Evaluating use of landtypes in reserve design

Cape Floristic Region, SA

How representative are the reserves?

Plants - proteas

Vertebrates - fish, amphibians, reptiles

BHU minimum set represented

79% of unreserved proteas

35% of unreserved vertebrates

BHUs are a good surrogate for SOME Species

slide8

Summary

Surrogates for overall biodiversity?

Flagships NO

Biodiversity Indicators NO

Landtypes not always

So what features should be used?

Combine inexpensive land type info

with other surrogates

slide9

CASE STUDY 1

Cape Floristic Region, SA

UNESCO World heritage site

Smallest of world’s floristic regions

Highest density of plant species in the world

Biodiversity Hotspot

slide10

Cape Floristic Region, SA

Fynbos - “fine bush”

Fire-prone shrub

80% of area

>7000 plant spp

slide11

Cape Floristic Region, SA

Renosterveld - “rhinoceros scrub”

lowlands

Shrub +

Coastal dunes

dominated by members of daisy family

slide12

Cape Floristic Region, SA

Reptiles

100 spp.

10 endemics

bontebok

Mammals

90 spp

4 endemics

slide13

Cape Floristic Region, SA

Birds 324 spp., 6 endemics

Endemic Bird Area (IBA) - Birdlife International

Amphibians

51 spp. 16 endemics

slide14

STATUS of BIODIVERSITY

IUCN RED LIST

FLORA - 1406 Endangered

- 300 Critically endangered

- 29 Extinct in wild

FAUNA - Threatened=CR, EN or VU

- 21 mammals, 12 birds

- 15 fish, 5 reptiles, 5 amphibians

- 6 butterflies, 6 dragonflies

slide15

THREATS to BIODIVERSITY

Habitat loss - lowland fynbos 83% of original

- lowland renosterveld 48% original

- matrix = agriculture/urban development

- remnants fragmented/isolated/degraded

Invasive species - upland/lowland fynbos

- 70% invaded by

- fire adapted tree spp.

33% CFR transformed

20% pristine

slide16

CAPE ACTION PLAN for the ENVIRONMENT

Initiated 1998

Govt, academia, NGOs, local community

AIM

Identify and establish a representative reserve system

Ensure sustainable yields from biodiversity resources

Improve conservation policies and legislation and

strengthen capacity to implement them

slide17

SYSTEMATIC CONSERVATION PLANNING

Stage 2: Conservation goals

Identify elements to protect

Land classes 102 BHUs

Proteacae locality records for 364 spp.

Selected lower vertebrates 345 spp.

Large and medium sized mammals 41 spp.

Ecological and evolutionary processes

Target

varies with heterogeneity, vulnerability, original extent 10-100%

Varies with threat 1-15 records

Varies with threat 1-2 records

Varies with endemism, range 10-2000 individuals 1-15 records

slide18

Stage 2: Conservation goals ctd

Ecological and evolutionary processes

Diversification across edaphic interfaces

----> 1 km wide interface between soil types

Diversification across upland/lowland interface

Faunal seasonal migration

Response to climate change

----> 1 km wide paths across gradients

eg coastal lowland --> interior mountain

Migration and diversification between inland and coastal biotas

---> whole inter-basin riverine corridors

500m wide, all untransformed lengths

+ restorable sections

slide19

Stage 3: Review existing conservation areas

GIS based GAP analysis

22% of CFR has some level of protection

189 sites

49% secure statutary conservation areas

51% less secure (state/municipal/private)

BUT Unrepresentative

50% Mountain Fynbos Complex (>target)

9% Lowland BHUs

Spatial components of ecological process not captured

slide20

Stage 4. Selection of additional areas

Planning units - grids of 3900 ha 3014

- current protected areas 1032

- process planning units 2993

Minimum set problem

Order - current reserves

- riverine/sand corridors

- irreplaceable BHUs, plants, vertebrates

- large mammals

- climatic, upland-lowland gradients

- outstanding objectives

(minimize vulnerable areas)

----> PLAN requiring 52% of extant habitat

slide21

Stage 5 - Implementation

Expansion of protected areas in intact habitat

Cape Peninsula and Cape Agulhas NP

Funds for 3 mega-reserves (> 500,000 ha)

and fragmented areas

assist conservation of irreplaceable lowlands

Promotion of sustainable use of biodiversity

investment in ecotourism

Promotion of conservation-minded governance

adoption of CAPE guidelines in assessing development proposals

slide22

Lessons learnt

Progress in implementation slow

municipal-level decision makers not identified as key stakeholders

scale was necessarily coarse- but additional fine scale planning therefore required

Limited success at integrating biodiversity issues into land use planning of some sectors

municipal level development

biodiversity-based enterprises

slide23

Coral reefs

  • Incredible biodiversity - 25% of marine spp.
  • And economically valuable
  • 8% world lives within 100 km of a reef
  • 10% of worlds fishing harvest
  • generate billions of dollars in tourism and provide opportunities for local development

Very vulnerable

Philippines - 56% reefs close to being lost

slide24

Project Seahorse

Director Dr Amanda Vincent, Fisheries, UBC

“committed to conservation and sustainable use of the world’s coastal marine ecosystems”

slide25

Project Seahorse - Philippines

Danajon bank - 145 km

one of only six double-barrier reefs in the world

slide26

Bohol Island

652 km of coastline

70,000 ha of coral reef

29 coastal municipalities; 1 city of 1.2 million

80,00 full or part-time fishers

Fishing is main employer and main supplier of animal protein

1999 - 55% villagers noted use of dynamite and/or poison on fishing areas

slide27

Issues

Population growth - family size

Poverty

Overexploitation of marine resource

--->Degradation and loss of coral reef

Project Seahorse - approach

Educate school scholarships/apprenticeships

visits to other ‘no-take reserves’

Empower local fishers - KAMADA alliance,

Develop alternative employment

Research effectiveness of MPAs

slide28

Project Seahorse

Marine protected areas in Bohol

First MPA initiated 1996

Where?

How large?

slide29

Project Seahorse

Community survey one year later

vast majority felt reserve was “working”

Area expanded to 50 ha

Greater focus on enforcement

MPA Guardhouse

KAMADA member paid by community

slide30

Project Seahorse

Currently

20 MPAs in northern Bohol

KAMADA expanded to 4 islands in Danajon Bank

700+ members

20 independent villages

members act as fish wardens

play a role in Coastal Law Enforcement

provide active link between villages

and local and national government

MPAs have support of local gov’t as a biodiversity conservation and

fisheries management tool

slide31

Project Seahorse

Science

Populaton recovery in no-take zones

cf before / after after/control

size distributions have changed

abundance harvested families up

some other families down

Spillover effects

- evidence of recovery outside MPA ltd BUT

- fishers harvest from just outside buffer zones - extraction rate data coming

slide32

Lessons learnt

Degraded habitat can make good reserves

any improvement is easily detected

Devolution of power to local governments in 1991 facilitated community empowerment

Paired community liaison officer + local biologist teams linked biodiversity and sustainable development

Community support generated momentum for further conservation initiatives

slide33

Project Seahorse takes volunteers

Philipines

Deadline May 15

Portugal

Deadline April 1

Source for most CFR material

- text Ch 14 and Biol Conservation 112 (Vol 1+2)