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RADIATION SAFETY T RAINING. Presented by: Ali Shoushtarian Office of Risk Management, Environmental Health and Safety Service. Last revised Jan. 2009. Manager, Radiation and Biosafety Lois Sowden-Plunkett ext. 3058 lsowden@uottawa.ca Compliance Inspector

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Radiation safety training

RADIATIONSAFETYTRAINING

Presented by:Ali Shoushtarian

Office of Risk Management, Environmental Health and Safety Service

Last revised Jan. 2009


Radiation safety training

Manager, Radiation and Biosafety

Lois Sowden-Plunkett

ext. 3058 lsowden@uottawa.ca

Compliance Inspector

Ali Shoushtarian

ext. 3057 ashousht@uottawa.ca

Radiation Safety Program Web Page http://www.uottawa.ca/services/ehss/ionizing.htm


Regulatory agencies
REGULATORY AGENCIES

  • Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC)

  • City of Ottawa

  • Ontario Fire Marshall

  • Transport Canada

  • Ontario Ministry of Labour


Radiation safety training

Radiation Safety Committee

Reports to the Board of Governors

Chaired by Vice-Rector, Research

Ensures compliance with CNSC regulations and license conditions, issues permits

Office of Risk Management – EHS

Manages the radiation safety program

Conducts inspections

Monitors doses, inventory

Conducts training

STAKEHOLDERS


Radiation safety training

STAKEHOLDERS

Radioisotope Permit Holder

  • Ensures all University regulations, policies and requirements are met

  • Adheres to all permit limits and conditions

  • Ensures a safe work environment

    Radioisotope User

  • Complies with all elements of radiation safety program

  • Works in a safe fashion (self, colleagues, environment)

  • attends all appropriate training


Permits
PERMITS

1. Open Sources

2. Sealed Sources

3. Sealed Sources incorporated in a device

4. Exempt Quantities

with associated permit conditions


Course outline
COURSE OUTLINE

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

physical and biological characteristics

risk analysis

units and calculations

OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES

ordering and receipt of material

inventory and disposal

monitoring

SAFE PRACTICES

personal protection

handling procedures

laboratory safety

MOVIE


Radiation safety training

WHAT IS RADIATION ?

WHAT IS RADIATION ?


Radiation
RADIATION

  • Spontaneous decay

  • Half-life

  • 4 geometry


Radiation safety training

RADIATION

Excess p & n  alpha particles

Excess p  positron ( + )

Excess n  negatron (  - )

Excess nuclear E  gamma ray

Excess orbital E  X-ray


Alpha emission
ALPHA EMISSION

  • origin: DISINTEGRATING NUCLEUS (Mainly heavy nuclei)

  • form of radiation: PARTICLE

  • energy range: 4-8 MeV

  • range of travel: 2-8 cm in air

  • other characteristics: LARGE MASS, DOUBLE CHARGE, HIGH SPECIFIC ACTIVITY


Beta emission
BETA EMISSION

  • origin: DISINTEGRATING NUCLEUS

  • form of radiation: NEGATRON (electron)

    POSITRON (similar to an electron but positive charge)

  • energy range: 0.02 - 4.8 MeV

  • range of travel: 0 - 10 m in air

  • other characteristics: DIFFERS FROM AN ELECTON IN ORIGIN AND ENERGY; TRAVELS ALMOST THE SPEED OF LIGHT; ALMOST NO MASS (9.1x 10-31 kg)


Gamma emission
GAMMA EMISSION

  • origin: NUCLEUS

  • form of radiation: ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION (emr - photon)

  • energy range: 10 keV - 3 MeV

  • range of travel: 100 m in air

  • other characteristics: ZERO MASS, ELECTRICALLY NEUTRAL


X ray emission
X-RAY EMISSION

  • origin: ORBITAL ELECTRON

  • form of radiation: ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION (emr - photon)

  • energy range: 10eV - 120 keV

  • range of travel: 100 m in air

  • other characteristics: ZERO MASS, ELECTRICALLY NEUTRAL


Interaction with matter
INTERACTION WITH MATTER

IONIZATION

  • Electron is removed from an electron shell leaving a charged particle.

    EXCITATION

  • Electron is raised to a higher energy level but isn’t knocked out of the shell


Radiation safety training

BREMSSTRAHLUNG

  • A negatron approaches the nucleus and is accelerated.

  • As it leaves the nucleus it decelerates and emits excess energy as emr.

INTERACTION WITH MATTER


Interaction with biological matter

DIRECT

vital cell structures

INDIRECT

ionizes H2O

forms peroxides

interacts with the vital cell structure

INTERACTION WITH BIOLOGICAL MATTER


Radiation ranges in tissue
RADIATION RANGES IN TISSUE

(average linear dimension of a cell = 17.1 m )

  • alpha particles of 210Po ……… 15m

  • beta particles of 3H …………… 5 m

  • beta particles of 32P ……….. 300 m

  • gamma rays of 60Co …………. infinity


Radiosensitivity of cells
RADIOSENSITIVITY OF CELLS

  • Blood producing and reproductive cells are the most sensitive

  • Muscle, nerve and bone cells are the least.

    At low doses, the effects of radiation are not known.


Internal doses
INTERNAL DOSES

  • CRITICAL ORGANS

    • 3H – Body water or tissue

    • 14C – Fat tissue

    • 32P – Bones

    • 35S – Gonads

    • 125I – Thyroid

    • 57Co – Large Intestine

      PREGNANCY


External doses
EXTERNAL DOSES

Gamma rays

Beta particles

Alpha particles


Biological response to radiation
BIOLOGICAL RESPONSE TO RADIATION

  • No change

  • Mutation and repair

  • Permanent change with limited effect

  • Changes leading to cancer or other effects

  • Death of cell / organism (minutes - years)


The effects of radiation on the human body
THE EFFECTS OF RADIATION ON THE HUMAN BODY

  • Genetic

    • appears in latter generations

    • due to cell damage of the reproductive organs

  • Somatic

    • appears in the irradiated individual

    • immediate or delayed effects

  • Stochastic

    • refers to probability of biological effect due to ionizing radiation

    • assumes effect is proportional to dose / dose rate, i.e., no safe threshold


  • Dose limits

    non-NEWNEW

    Whole body, gonads, 1 mSv 50 mSv

    bone marrow

    Skin, thyroid, bone 50 mSv 500 mSv

    Tissue of hands, feet, 50 mSv 500 mSv

    and forearms

    Dose Limits:

    THERMOLUMINESCENT DOSIMETRY


    Comparison of risk
    COMPARISON OF RISK

    • exposure to 100 Sv ionizing radiation

    • smoking 1.5 cigarettes

    • travelling 50 miles by car

    • being male and 60 years old for 20 minutes

    • canoeing for 6 minutes


    Units of radiation
    UNITS OF RADIATION

    • ACTIVITY

    • ABSORBED DOSE

    • DOSE EQUIVALENT


    Activity units
    ACTIVITY UNITS

    Non - S.I.(Système international)

    CURIE (Ci)

    1 Ci = 3.7 x 1010 dps

    S.I.

    BECQUEREL (Bq)

    1 Bq = 1 dps


    Absorbed dose units
    ABSORBED DOSE UNITS

    Non - S.I.

    RAD (rad)

    1 rad = 100 ergs of energy/g

    S.I.

    GRAY (Gy)

    1 Gy = 1 joule of energy/kg


    Dose equivalent units
    DOSE EQUIVALENT UNITS

    Non - S.I.

    REM (rem)

    1 rem = rad x Quality Factor

    S.I.

    SIEVERT (Sv)

    1 Sv = Gy x Quality Factor


    Calculations
    CALCULATIONS

    TWO IMPORTANT CALCULATIONS:

    1. Decay correction

    2. Converting cpm to Curies


    1 decay correction

    CALCULATIONS

    1. DECAY CORRECTION

    A = Aoe -  t

    A = activity at time “t”

    Ao= activity at time zero

    t = elapsed time

     = decay constant ( = 0.693 / t 1/2)


    Example

    CALCULATIONS

    Example:

    • 250 Ci of 35S arrived on May 19, 2005

    • 100 Ci was removed and used the same day.

    • The remaining amount was stored in a freezer for future use.

    • On June 30, 2005, it is decided to repeat the experiment.

      ? Does another order of 35S have to be placed or is there enough remaining activity that the experiment may proceed?


    Solution

    CALCULATIONS

    Solution:

    A = A0e - t

    A = activity at time ‘t’ ( ? )

    A0= activity at time zero (250 - 100 = 150 Ci)

    t = elapsed time (42 days)

     = decay constant (0.693 / 87 days = 0.00797)

    A = (150)e - (0.00797)(42)

    A = 107.32 Ci

    (** SAVINGS **)


    2 converting cpm to curies

    CALCULATIONS

    2. CONVERTING CPM TO CURIES

    Step 1 Determine counting

    efficiency of the detector.

    Step 2 Convert cpm to dpm.

    Step 3 Convert dpm to Curie.


    Step 1 determine counting efficiency of the detector using a source with a known activity

    CALCULATIONS

    Step 1 Determine counting efficiency of the detector using a source with a known activity.

    % efficiency = observed cpm - background cpm x 100 source of emission rate (dpm)

    Ex. count rate = 2045 cpm

    background = 65 cpm

    source = 220 Bq = 1.32 x 104 dpm

    % efficiency = 2045 - 65 cpm = 15%

    1.32 x 104 dpm


    Step 2 convert cpm to dpm

    CALCULATIONS

    Step 2 Convert cpm to dpm.

    dpm = corrected cpm

    efficiency

    Ex. Sample = 4925 cpm

    background = 65 cpm

    efficiency = 15%

    dpm = 4925 - 65 = 32,400

    0.15


    Step 3 convert dpm to curie

    CALCULATIONS

    Step 3 Convert dpm to curie.

    Since 1 Bq = 1 dps = 2.7 x 10-11 Ci

    Then 60 dpm = 2.7 x 10-11 Ci

    Therefore32,400 dpm = 1.48 x 10-8 Ci

    or, # Bq = __1.48 x 10-8 Ci_ = 540 Bq

    2.7 x 10 -11 Ci/Bq


    Classification of laboratory
    CLASSIFICATION OF LABORATORY

    Annual Limit on Intake (ALI)

    The activity, in Becquerel (Bq), of a radionuclide that will deliver an effective dose of 20 mSv after the radionuclide is taken into the body

    Basic: 5 X ALI Intermediate: 5-50 X ALI High: 50-500 X ALI

    Exemption Quantity (EQ)

    The quantity, in Becquerel (Bq), of a radionuclide, below which no licence is required

    10000 EQ: Written approval from CNSC


    Classification of radionuclides
    CLASSIFICATION OF RADIONUCLIDES

    • Contamination levels

    • Decommissioning levels

      Class A (high): Na-22, Zn-65

      Class B (med): Rb-86

      Class C (low): H-3, C-14 , S-35, Ca-45,

      P-33, P-32, I-125


    Decay products
    DECAY PRODUCTS

    32P  Sulphur

    14C  Nitrogen

    35S  Chlorine

    3H  Helium-3


    Operational procedures
    OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES

    • Ordering

    • Receipt of Radioactive Material (TDG)

    • Inventory

    • Disposal

    • Monitoring

    • Inspection of Laboratories


    Ordering
    ORDERING

    • Radioactive materials purchase procedures

      - Radioisotopes Purchase Requisition form

      - Form must be complete (PO number, signature)

      - EHSS approval before ordering

      - Documentation (packing slips, shipper’s declaration)

    • Permit conditions

    • Material purchased for other labs

    • Inventory records


    Radiation safety training

    PURCHASE

    REQUISITION

    FORM


    Receipt of radioactive material
    RECEIPT OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL

    • TDG – Class 7

      - Definition of radioactive materials

      - Radioactive packages

      - Radiation warning labels

      - Receipt of radioactive material


    Tdg class 7
    TDG – CLASS 7

    DEFINITION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL FOR TRANSPORT

    Former:

    - 70kBq/kg

    New:

    - radionuclide dependent

    - types of radiation

    - energies

    - chemical forms

    - potentialbiological effect on persons


    Tdg class 71
    TDG – CLASS 7

    Radioactive packages may be shipped as:

    - Excepted packages

    - Industrial packages – Categories I, II and III

    - Type A packages – lower amounts

    - Type B (U) packages – large amounts; ≤ 700 kPa

    - Type B (M) packages – large amounts; > 700 kPa

    - Type C packages – for air transport of high activity


    Tdg class 72
    TDG – CLASS 7

    EXCEPTED PACKAGES

    - The safety mark ‘RADIOACTIVE’ must be visible on

    opening the package

    - The radiation level at any point on the external surface

    of the package must not exceed 5 Sv/h

    All other packages must be categorized by radiation

    level and display the corresponding radiation warning

    labels as follows:


    Tdg class 73
    TDG – CLASS 7

    RADIATION WARNING LABELS

    Category I-White: less than 5 Sv/h

    Category II-Yellow: less than 500 Sv/h, TI less than 1

    Category III-Yellow: less than 2 mSv/h, TI less than 10

    TI: maximum radiation level in Sv/h at 1 meter from the

    external surface of the package, divided by 10.

    Ex: 1 Sv/h (0.1 mrem/h) at 1 m equals a TI = 0.1


    Tdg class 74
    TDG – CLASS 7

    RECEIPT OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL

    - Radioactive packages must be delivered to the laboratory using a cart

    to increase distance between the transporter and the package in order

    to minimize radiation exposure

    - Inspect packaging both externally and internally for damage or leakage

    - Perform contamination monitoring on the package, vial holder and vial

    - Deface wording and labels prior to disposal of the package

    - Complete an Inventory of Use and Disposition form

    Report any anomalies to the supervisor and RSO


    Inventory
    INVENTORY

    • Sealed Sources

      (encapsulated, incorporated in a

      device, check sources)

    • Open Sources

    • Transfers

      ** HISTORICAL



    Radiation safety training

    Radioactive

    Waste

    Solid

    Water-Soluble

    Liquid Scintillation

    Animal Carcasses

    Waste

    Waste

    Waste

    Waste

    DISPOSAL


    Radiation safety training

    Solid Waste

    Landfill

    Short-Term Storage

    Off-Site

    (1 DL / kg)

    (t 1/2 = 90 days)

    Disposal

    (e.g., sealed sources)

    (1 DL/kg)

    DISPOSAL

    DISPOSAL LIMITS (DL) TO MUNICIPAL GARBAGE

    C-14: 3.7 MBq (100 μCi)/kg; H-3: 37 MBq (1000 μCi)/kg

    I-125: 0.037 MBq (1 μCi)/kg; P-32: 0.37 MBq (10 μCi)/kg


    Radiation safety training

    DISPOSAL

    Labels

    • On decay can

    • Deface contents



    Radiation safety training

    DISPOSAL

    Time required for decay

    A = Ao e -  t

    t = ln (A/Ao)

    - 

    A = activity at time ‘t’

    Ao= activity at time zero

    t = elapsed time

     = decay constant ( = 0.693 / t 1/2 )


    Example1

    DISPOSAL

    Example:

    • 100 μCi of 32P solid waste collected

    • Weight of waste = 0.785 kg

    • Disposal limit of 32P is 0.37 MBq/kg (10 μCi)

    • half life (t1/2) of 32P is 14.3 days


    Solution1

    DISPOSAL

    Solution:

    Step 1 Determine activity (A) permitted at disposal

    Weight = 0.785 kg

    1 DL/kg = 10 Ci / kg

    A = Weight X 1 DL / kg

    A = 0.785 kg X 10 Ci / kg

    A = 7.85 Ci


    Step 2 determine length of decay period t

    DISPOSAL

    Step 2: Determine Length of Decay Period (t)

    t = ln (A/Ao)

    - 

    A = activity at time ‘t’ (7.85 Ci)

    Ao = activity at time zero (100 Ci)

    t = elapsed time (?)

     = decay constant (0.693 / 14.3 days = 0.0485/day)

    t = ln (7.85 Ci / 100 Ci) = 52.5 days

    - 0.0485/day


    Radiation safety training

    Water Soluble

    Waste

    DL/Year/Building

    DISPOSAL

    C-14: 0.01 TBq, H-3: 1 TBq

    I-125: 100 MBq, P-32: 4 GBq


    Radiation safety training

    Liquid Scintillation

    Waste

    Off-Site Disposal

    DISPOSAL




    Monitoring
    MONITORING

    Survey Meters

    versus

    Contamination Monitors


    Monitoring1
    MONITORING

    • Leak testing

    • Contamination monitoring

    • Dose rate around storage, waste, use areas

      * prior to repair of equipment


    Leak testing sealed sources

    MONITORING

    Leak Testing (Sealed Sources)

    • Sources  1.35 mCi

    • frequency [6 (in use), 12 (in a device), or 24 months (storage)],

    • CNSC procedures,

    • certificates

    • reporting criteria (200 Bq leakage)

    • transfers, incidents (immediately)


    Monitoring2
    MONITORING

    Contamination Monitoring (Open Sources)

    • Map of lab

    • Weekly or after 5 x ALI

    • Decontaminate

    • Record “no radioisotope used”

    • After any spill


    Radiation safety training

    MONITORING

    Contamination Criteria <

    Class A: 3.0 Bq/cm2

    Class B: 30 Bq/cm2

    Class C: 300 Bq/cm2

    Decommissioning Criteria <

    Class A: 0.3 Bq/cm2

    Class B: 3.0 Bq/cm2

    Class C: 30 Bq/cm2

    EHSS Criteria

    0.3 Bq/cm2


    Radiation safety training

    Contamination Monitoring

    Parameters of interest for contamination monitors-Efficiency

    Not all decay emissions

    Are detected!

    Detector Covering

    Detector Volume

    Efficiency:

    1) Distance: 1/r2

    2) Beta Absorption

    3) Size of window

    Surface


    Contamination monitoring
    Contamination Monitoring

    Converting cpm results into Bq/cm2 for GM pancake

    • Bq/cm2 = (Cpm – Bkg) / Ec X Ew X 60 X A

    • where Cpm = counts per minute for the wipe,

    • Bkg = counts per minute of the background filter,

    • Ec = scintillation counter efficiency (see note below), or GM efficiency

    • Ew = wipe efficiency, assume 10% (0.1), and

    • A = area wiped in cm2.

    • Note: As a rule of thumb, when the counter efficiency (Ec) is unknown, the following

    • efficiencies can be used for the purpose of counting wipes:

    • 100% (1) for 32P, 14C, 35S

    • 75% (0.75) for 125I

    • 50% (0.5) for 3H and unknowns


    Inspections
    INSPECTIONS

    1. General Condition of lab

    2. Inventory/Disposal

    3. Contamination Monitoring

    4. Measurements

    5. Questionnaire


    Dose rate measurements should be undertaken
    Dose rate measurements should be undertaken:

    • Routinely to ensure doses are ALARA

    • Around storage, waste and use areas

    • Whenever new sources arrive, or new radioisotopes are used

    • When new experimental procedures are implemented


    Radiation safety training

    SAFE HANDLING PRACTICES

    A As

    L Low

    A As

    R Reasonably

    A Achievable


    Radiation safety training

    SAFE HANDLING PRACTICES

    TIME

    D = d X t

    D = radiation dose

    d = radiation dose rate

    t = time duration of exposure


    Distance

    SAFE HANDLING PRACTICES

    DISTANCE

    Inverse Square Law

    D1 s12 = D2 s22

    D1 = dose at distance 1

    s1 = distance 1

    D2 = dose at distance 2

    s 2 = distance 2


    Sheilding

    SAFE HANDLING PRACTICES

    SHEILDING

    • reduces or stops radiation

    • dependent on:

      - energy of radiation

      - type of shielding

      remember: 4 geometry


    Personal protection equipment
    PERSONAL PROTECTION EQUIPMENT

    • LAB COAT

    • GLOVES

    • SAFETY GLASSES


    Spill response
    SPILL RESPONSE

    1. REPORTING

    2. CLEAN-UP

    3. LEAVING CONTAMINATED AREA

    4. PERSONAL DECONTAMINATION


    1 reporting

    SPILL RESPONSE

    1. REPORTING

     Inform co-workers & supervisor.

     Inform Protection Services (5411)

     Inform ORM

    (3058, 3057)


    2 clean up

    SPILL RESPONSE

    2. CLEAN-UP

    1. Attend to injured person and ensure personal safety.

    2. Assess the size of the spill.

    3. Obtain necessary supplies.

    4. Cover spill with absorbent.


    Radiation safety training

    SPILL RESPONSE

    5. Push spill towards centre.

    6. Decontaminate area in sections.

    7. Check for contamination (record).

    8. Re-clean as necessary.

    9. Inform Radiation Safety Officer of fixed contamination.


    3 leaving a contaminated area

    SPILL RESPONSE

    3. LEAVING A CONTAMINATED AREA

    • Monitor self (especially feet, hands and lab coat).

    • Leave lab coat behind if contaminated and remove dosimeter badge.

    • Put up sign and lock door.


    Radiation safety training

    SPILL RESPONSE

    DO NOT ENTER!

    Name

    Telephone #

    Nature of Spill

    Location

    Time of Return


    4 personal decontamination

    SPILL RESPONSE

    4. PERSONAL DECONTAMINATION

    • Use tepid water and mild soap.

    • Avoid causing abrasions to skin.

    • Wash for a few minutes, dry and monitor. (fingernails too!)

    • Carefully monitoring is the only way to measure progress.


    Radiation safety training

    Suspicious packages

    Unopened

    • Do not open and do not shake

    • Place in secondary container or cover

    • Inform others of the situation

    • Clear the room and section off the area

    • All individuals who may have come into contact with the material must wash their hands

    • Call Protection Services and wait for their arrival

    • List all the individuals present in the room or area when the package arrived. Give this list to Protection Services for follow-up


    Suspicious packages
    Suspicious packages

    Opened

    • Contents Intact

    • Do not manipulate contents further

    • Cover the package

    • Inform others of the situation

    • Clear the room and section off the area

    • All individuals who may have come into contact with the material must wash their hands

    • Call Protection Services and wait for their arrival

    • List all the individuals present in the room or area when the package arrived. Give this list to Protection Services for follow-up


    Suspicious packages1
    Suspicious packages

    Contents not intact (spilled)

    • Do not try to clean up the spill

    • Gently cover the spill

    • Inform others of the situation

    • All individuals who may have come into contact with the material must wash their hands

    • Call Protection Services

    • Remove heavily contaminated clothing (place in bag) and shower using soap and water

    • List all the individuals present in the room or area when the package arrived. Give this list to Protection Services for follow-up


    Summary
    SUMMARY

    External Dose: time distance shielding

    Internal Dose: critical organs

    prevent: …. ingestion

    …….absorption

    …….inhalation


    Think safety
    THINK SAFETY

    PLAN

    PRACTICE

    REVIEW