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Development. AP Human Geography. What is development?. Development refers to improved living conditions for humans through diffusion of knowledge and technology. Includes: education, health care, jobs, economy, income, etc.

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development

Development

AP Human Geography

what is development
What is development?
  • Development refers to improved living conditions for humans through diffusion of knowledge and technology.
  • Includes: education, health care, jobs, economy, income, etc.
  • Development is generally viewed as desirable and something that benefits everyone.
  • However, different countries develop at different rates, creating inequality.
mdc s vs ldc s
MDC’s vs. LDC’s

MDC’s

LDC’s

  • Higher GDP per capita ($20,000 +)
  • Better health care= longer life expectancy, lower infant mortality rates
  • Better education= higher literacy rate, better jobs
  • Tertiary jobs
  • Stage 4/5 of DTM
  • Anglo-America, Europe, Japan, S. Korea, Australia
  • Lower GDP per capita (as low as $1000)
  • Poor access to health care= disease, shorter life span, high infant mortality
  • Less access to education= lower literacy rate, fewer jobs
  • Primary, Secondary jobs
  • Stage 2/3 of DTM
  • Africa, Latin America, Asia
hdi human development index
HDI: Human Development Index
  • A “formula” used by the UN to determine the level of development of a country.
  • 1.0 is highest, 0.0 is lowest.
  • Factors used to determine HDI
    • GDP per capita (economic factor)
    • Literacy rate (social factor)
    • Level of education (social factor)
    • Life expectancy (demographic factor)
hdi mdc s vs ldc s
HDI: MDC’s vs. LDC’s

MDC’s

LDC’s

  • Japan 0.96
  • Anglo- America 0.95
  • Europe 0.93
  • Oceania 0.90
  • Russia 0.73*
  • Latin America 0.82
  • East Asia 0.77
  • SW Asia/N. Africa 0.74
  • SE Asia 0.73
  • Central Asia 0.70
  • South Asia 0.61
  • Sub-Saharan Af. 0.51
core periphery model
Core-Periphery Model
  • Countries of the world are divided into 3 groups:
  • Core
    • MDC’s w/ high standard of living
    • Europe, U.S., Canada, Japan, etc.
  • Semi-Periphery
    • Newly industrialized, not as developed as core.
    • BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India, China)
  • Periphery
    • Low industrialization, standard of living, etc.
    • Sub-Saharan Africa, parts of Asia/SA
  • Historically, the Core developed at the expense of the Periphery.
    • Ex. Colonization
  • Today, gap between core and periphery continues to grow.