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Leks. Hotspot Female preference Male aggregations Hotshots Kin selection The lek paradox. Leks. Swedish for mating arena No male parental care No resource on territory Males aggregate and display at traditional sites. Leks occur when females are not defensible. Leks ->. antelope.

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Leks
Leks

  • Hotspot

  • Female preference

    • Male aggregations

    • Hotshots

  • Kin selection

  • The lek paradox


Leks

Leks

  • Swedish for mating arena

  • No male parental care

  • No resource on territory

  • Males aggregate and display at traditional sites


Leks occur when females are not defensible
Leks occur when females are not defensible

Leks ->

antelope

grouse & ptarmigan



Male mating success on leks
Male mating success on leks

Sage grouse video


Lekking and frugivory in birds
Lekking and frugivory in birds

Lek

Exploded lek

Territory


New world lekking birds
New World lekking birds

Cock-of-the-rock

Manakins

Bell birds


Hypotheses for male clustering
Hypotheses for male clustering

  • Hotspot

    • males aggregate to maximize female encounter rate

  • Female preference

    • Females prefer to select mates in aggregations

    • Females prefer central male

    • Females prefer attractive male (hotshot) and other males aggregate around him

  • Kin selection

    • Males aggregate around relatives



Leks of leks suggest hotspots
Leks of leks suggest hotspots

Hermit hummingbird

Ochre-bellied flycatcher

Red-capped manakin

Blue-crowned manakin


Sage grouse leks and hotspots

Lek location

Female nest density

Sage grouse leks and hotspots


Possible reasons for female preference to mate at a lek

Best-of-n expectation

Std dev units

Number of males

Possible reasons for female preference to mate at a lek

  • Reduce predation

    • No evidence in sage grouse

  • More efficient comparison of males

    • Reduce mate searching costs

    • But, assuming male quality is normally distributed, advantage of choosing best male is greatest in small, not large, leks

    • Can copy choice of others


Mate choice copying in sage grouse
Mate choice copying in sage grouse

Green = observed, orange = predicted w/out copying



Do leks recruit more females male in kob

No!

Do leks recruit more females/male in kob?



Are black grouse hotshots
Are black grouse hotshots?

Yearly shift suggests male attractiveness, not position, is important


Related manakins on leks

Shorey et al. 2000 Nature 408:352-353

Also in peacock, black grouse, satin

bowerbirds, wild turkeys

Related manakins on leks


The lek paradox
The lek paradox

  • In lekking species, males only pass sperm. Therefore, only indirect benefits are possible.

  • If males differ in genetic quality, then females should always prefer the male of highest quality.

  • Over time, such intense selection will deplete and possibly eliminate genetic variation.

  • What then do females gain by choosing?


Solution to the lek paradox
Solution to the lek paradox

  • Genetic variation must persist for ornamental traits and genetic quality

  • Ornament expression depends on condition.

    • Only males in good condition are able to fully express ornament

    • Condition is likely influenced by many genes. Consequently, deleterious mutations constantly replenish genetic variation.