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Europe in crisis. Disease, war, and schism. Europe in crisis: disease. The Bubonic Plague Known as the Black Death only from 1346-1353 in Europe. Enzootic Meaning it was contracted by humans from animals. Where did it come from? Originated in Asia Probably China

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Europe in crisis

Europe in crisis

Disease, war, and schism

Europe in crisis disease
Europe in crisis: disease

The Bubonic Plague

  • Known as the Black Death only from 1346-1353 in Europe.

  • Enzootic

    • Meaning it was contracted by humans from animals.

      Where did it come from?

  • Originated in Asia

    • Probably China

    • First outbreak is seen around Lake IssykKulin Kyrgyzstan in 1338

      How was it spread?

  • By the old Silk Road, both via land routes and sea routes

Europe in crisis disease3
Europe in crisis: disease

First Signs of a Pandemic

  • Crops up in the Byzantine Empire in the 6th & 7th centuries.

    • Known as the Plague of Justinian

    • Wipes out possibly 40% of the population of Constantinople.

      Why do you think it took so long for the plague to become a world wide pandemic?

      Do you think Europe was more susceptible to the plague than other parts of the world? Why?

Europe in crisis disease4
Europe in crisis: disease

A Weak Europe is Easy Prey for the Plague

  • A warming trend comes to a close in the North Atlantic region (950-1250 c.e.)

  • A “little ice age” begins (1350-1850 c.e.)

  • Higher fertility rates (5 per woman)

    • Less food

    • More people ---- Which leads to what?

  • Heavy rains begin to hit Europe by the fall of 1314

    • Cold and wet winters make harvests worse.

    • Seven year famine results – The Great Famine

      What problems do you foresee arising from a shifting climate?

  • Lower yield harvests

  • New heavy plow and three-field system weren’t as effective in the north – harder clay soil.

Europe in crisis disease5
Europe in crisis: disease

How It Spread

  • Oct. 1347 it reaches Sicily, brought by ships coming from Genoa.

  • Outbreak in Pisa that spread through Northern Italy.

  • A ship expelled from Italy reached Marseille, France in Jan 1348.

  • After France it hit Spain, Portugal, and England by June 1348.

  • It spread east through Scandinavia and Germany by 1350.

Danse macabre the dance of death
Danse Macabre “The Dance of Death”

  • Ankle length over-coat.

  • Bird like beak mask.

  • Gloves, boots, brimmed hat, cloak.

Danse macabre the dance of death1
Danse Macabre “The Dance of Death”

Michael Wolgemut

Danse macabre the dance of death2
Danse Macabre “The Dance of Death”


St. Nicholas Church, Estonia

Europe in crisis disease7
Europe in crisis: disease

Consequences of the Black Death in Europe

  • Better sanitation – Pistoia (city in Tuscany), decreed that butchers and sellers of meat can’t stable horses or allow any mud or dung inside a shop where meat is sold.

  • Religious fundamentalism – whipping in order to placate god.

  • Persecutions against Jews

  • Art – the Dance of Death

  • Rise in the standard of living

  • Rise in education – new universities founded

Europe in crisis war
Europe in crisis: War

  • England dominated the first three phases.

    • The Kingdom of Burgundy was created that allied itself with England for a time.

  • Fourth Phase and a turnaround for the French.

    • 1429, Joan shows up at the royal court in full armor, riding a horse, and followed by a small army.

    • She fights and wins the Battle of Orleans – convincing the French crown (Charles VII) she is sent from God.

Europe in crisis war1
Europe in crisis: War

  • Edward’s campaigns in France achieved little.

    • Invaded again at Normandy in 1346

    • Philip musters troops to meet him at Crecy

    • English victory, but not decisive.

  • Black Prince launches pirate raids in France.

    • French finally force a battle

    • King John II is captured in the French defeat.

    • Ends the 1st phase of the war.

  • Peace treaty in 1359

    • English ransom John back to the French

    • English territories in Gascony are enlarged

    • Edward renounced claims to the French throne

    • John gives up control over English lands in France.

  • First phase makes it clear that the English cannot takeover all of France.

Europe in crisis war2
Europe in crisis: War

  • Treaty wasn’t really enforced

    • French recover all their lost lands under John’s son Charles V.

  • English Renew War

    • Strike when France is going through civil war

    • Burgundy and Orleans try to control the French crown

    • Henry V invades in 1415 at Battle of Agincourt

    • French loss and English ally themselves with Burgundy

    • Force Charles VI to sign a treaty wedding Henry V to his daughter.

    • By 1420 the English rule northern France

Europe in crisis war3
Europe in crisis: War

Who Will Save the French….?

  • Apparently all it takes is a teenage girl.

  • Joan of Arc

    • Experience religious visions

    • Persuades the French king to allow her to accompany them.

    • Predicts that Charles (Charles VI son) will sit on the throne of France.

    • Captured by Burgundy and turned over to the English.

  • Her exploits give new life to the French they go on to win the war

    • Cannon (gunpowder)

    • England loses commanders and their was political instability.

  • Europe in crisis schism
    Europe in crisis: Schism


    • By 1300 the papacy had reached its zenith.

    • 1290: Both England and France taxed landed estates and bishoprics (secular area of land ruled by a clerical office).

    • Pope Boniface VIII (1302) says no taxation of the clergy by civil rulers.

      • Issues papal bull, Unam Sanctum – outside the Roman church there is no salvation, all human creatures are subject to the Roman pontiff.

    • Philip sends (France) sends troops to arrest Boniface.

      • Boniface died soon after and French influence elects a pope that is more subservient to France.

    Europe in crisis schism1
    Europe in crisis: Schism

    Clement V – (1305)

    • Using the excuse of turbulence in Rome, he takes up residence at Avignon.

      • The Pope is the bishop of Rome

      • He is the successor of Saint Peter, considered to be the first bishop of Rome.

      • It damages the image of the papacy for the pontiff to reside elsewhere

    • By the 1330s the popes began to construct a stately palace in Avignon.

    Europe in crisis schism2
    Europe in crisis: Schism

    • The Church begins to adapt to the times as the other growing monarchical states

      • Builds the most sophisticated administrative system in the medieval world

      • Finding new sources of revenue

      • Impose new taxes on the clergy

      • Began to be criticized for the splendor in which they are living in.

    • Catherine of Siena goes on a mission to pope Gregory XI

      • Wants him to move the papacy back to Rome and live more modestly.

      • He does in 1377

    Europe in crisis schism3
    Europe in crisis: Schism

    Greg Dies in the next Year

    • College of cardinals meets to elect new pope

      • Roman citizens say that if they elect a Frenchman, they wont leave Rome alive.

      • They elect a Roman – Pope Urban VI

        • Says he will get rid of the French majority

    • French cardinals issue a manifesto claiming they were coerced into voting for a Roman.

      • They vote again and choose a Frenchman – Pope Clement VII

      • Promptly return to Avignon

    • Urban remained in Rome

      • Now we have two popes…

    Europe in crisis schism4
    Europe in crisis: Schism

    Urban VI

    Clement VII




    Southern Italy

    • England

    • Germany

    • Scandinavia

    • Most of the rest of Italy

    Europe in crisis schism5
    Europe in crisis: Schism

    The Great Schism

    • Greatly aggravated the abuses of the Church

    • Had to increase taxation

    • Hurt Christian faith in the Church

    • Each line of popes denounced the other as the antichrist… Classy.

      How to Fix This Thing?

    • The rise of the conciliar movement

      • Says that the church is only part of society and that they have no authority over temporal matters

      • Church authority is derived from the entire community of the faithful

      • Spiritual matters must decided by a general church council representing all church members

    Europe in crisis schism6
    Europe in crisis: Schism

    How Should Call the Council?

    • Cardinals from both camps call one

      • Council of Pisa (1409)

      • Depose both popes and elect Alexander V

      • The other two popes refuse to step down

        • Now we got three popes… You can’t have three popes.

          Holy Roman Emperor Calls a New Council

    • Remain popes either retire or are deposed

    • Martin V is elected and Great Schism is over

    Europe in crisis schism7
    Europe in crisis: Schism

    The Great Schism

    • The papacy briefly returns to Rome in 1378.

      • Cardinals elect Pope Urban VI, but regret it soon after.

      • They retreat to Anagni and elect a second pope, Clement VII (antipope: one who is opposition to the accepted pope but with a significant claim to that authority).

    • Clement VII moves his papacy back to Avignon.

    Consolidating power nation building
    Consolidating Power: Nation Building


    • North and Eastern Europe form loose alliances

    • The Swiss form a confederation

    • Italy goes from small city-states to five major powers

    • Spain unifies and centralizes under a monarchy

    • France and England strengthen their central gov’ts.

      How did the monarchs and republics of the 15th century use their newly consolidated powers?

    Consolidating power nation building1
    Consolidating Power: Nation Building

    Hanseatic League (Hanse means “guild”)

    • Mainly north German cities (in the Holy Roman Empire).

    • Came together to protect mutual interests

      • Trade

      • Defense

    • The League linked the Baltic Coast with Russia, Norway, England, and some cities in Italy

    • Usually threatened with war from Norway and Denmark.

      • They shared common armies during times of crisis

    The hanseatic league 13 th 17 th c
    The hanseatic league (13th - 17th C.)

    The hanseatic league 13 th 17 th c1
    The hanseatic league (13th - 17th C.)

    France 15 th century
    France (15th century)

    France 15 th century1
    France (15th century)

    • Before Louis XI (Valois Family) French kings usually only controlled the lands around Paris

    • Burgundy emerged from the 100 Years’ War agriculturally and economically more power than France.

      • Although part of the French royal house, they acted autonomously – acquiring land and building their own armies.

    • Duke of Burgundy dies in 1477, Louis XI seizes Burgundy land and consolidates it into greater France.

      • By end of 15th c. France doubles its size and looks more like the modern day French state.

    Spain mid 15 th cent
    Spain (mid-15th cent.)

    Spain mid 15 th cent1
    Spain (mid-15th cent.)

    • Mid-15th cent. Iberian Peninsula was divided into distinct kingdoms.

      • Castile, Aragon, Granada, Navarre, Portugal

      • All were Christian except Granada, which had been a Muslim stronghold for many years.

      • Muslim strength began to weaken by the 11th century

      • Christian kingdoms launched attacks throughout known as the Reconquista.

    • In this atmosphere, Isabella of Castile married Ferdinand of Aragon in 1469.

      • Opposition from nobles caused a decade long civil war, the royal houses emerged victorious and named a new Kingdom of Spain.

    Spain mid 15 th cent2
    Spain (mid-15th cent.)

    The New Spain

    • The new monarchs reduced the power of the nobility by appointing hidalgos

      • Lesser aristocrats who owe their positions to the state.

    • Ferdinand and Isabella began extending Christianity over the whole peninsula.

    • Turn to driving out Muslims in southern Castile and Granada.

      • Stimulates religious fervor, and inspires loyalty to the king and queen.

      • Pope grants them the right to appoint bishops and abbots.

      • Also they are granted the right to establish their own Inquisition.

    Spain mid 15 th cent3
    Spain (mid-15th cent.)

    The New Spain (Inquisition)

    • 1492: Last Muslim stronghold falls in Granada.

    • 1493: All Jews are expelled from Spain

      • About 150,000 people given 4 months to leave.

    • 1502: All Muslims how had not converted are expelled

    • Persecution of all heretics fosters religious unity that strengthens centralization.

    England 15 th century
    England (15th century)

    • After 100 Years’ War England goes through a civil war.

      • War of the Roses (1455-1485): between rival factions of the royal family for power.

      • House of Lancaster (Red Rose) vs. House of York (White Rose)

      • Compromise was reached in 1485 when a new royal house emerged after a marriage between the two warring families – The Tudors.

      • Henry VII ruled as the first Tudor king in a dynasty that would dominate England through the 16th century.

        • Set up Court of Star Chamber that allowed him to further his power

        • Confiscated noble lands and fortunes to a point where he didn’t need Parliament for financial support.

    Swiss confederation
    Swiss Confederation

    • Switzerland is made up of semi-autonimous provinces or cantons.

      • Each one is under the rubric of the federal state of Switzerland.

    • Much like the Hanseatic League, the cantons organized in order to maintain separation from the Holy Roman Empire.

    • Dominated by wealthy merchants and tradesmen.

      • These were able to supplant the nobility by the 15th cent.

    • Rural communities gain some political importance – no king, duke, or count ever came to rule the confederation.

      • Swiss foot soldiers would act as mercenaries for kings throughout the rest of Europe.


    • Milan

    • Venice

    • Florence

    • Naples

    • Papal States

    • A loose alliance is constructed in 1454 between Milan, Naples, and Florence – Treaty of Lodi

      • Only a few years before Milan and Naples begin to feud

      • This allowed an expanding France (Charles VIII) to cross the alps and invade Milan, then Naples.

      • Florence, Rome, and Naples fold, but Pope Leo X calls Spain and the HRE to defend Italy.

      • Italy becomes a battle ground in Europe, particularly b/t the Valois (France) and the Habsburgs (HRE).

    Italy 15 th century
    Italy (15th century)

    In conclusion 1340 1492
    In conclusion (1340-1492)

    • 100 Years’ War (1337)

    • Black Death (1346)

    • Schism in the Church (Avignon & Rome)

    • Uprisings in the countryside

    • Ottoman Turks capture Constantinople (1453)

    • Renaissance spreads out from Italy

      • Rulers use the new arts to glorify themselves

    • Spain is unified by marriage, along with Poland-Lithuania.

    • The Swiss Confederation becomes a permanent entity.