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Sentenced! Part 1. On the Chain Gang -- Chaining Words Together to Create Correct Sentences. Verbs. The core or nucleus of every sentence is a verb. Verbs.

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sentenced part 1

Sentenced! Part 1

On the Chain Gang --

Chaining Words Together to Create Correct Sentences

verbs
Verbs
  • The core or nucleus

of every sentence is a verb.

verbs1
Verbs
  • That means it is the most important part, and you cannot have a sentence without at least one verb that is doing the job of a verb.
the jobs of verbs
The Jobs of Verbs
  • Add information about people, places, things, events, and so forth.

2. Indicate the time of the message. (Tense)

note about verbs
Note about Verbs

A verb can be either a single word or a set of words.

“Many birds live near brooks.”

“That homing pigeon has flown back to Utah from Mexico.”

verbs add information
Verbs Add Information

_____has been lying (in the street)(for three weeks).

_____ received all A’s.

______ ate eight Big Macs and three orders (of fries).

Who or what?

verbs show time
Verbs Show Time

_____ is a secret agent.

_____ was a secret agent.

______ will be a secret agent.

_______ has been a secret agent.

Who or what?

= Subject

verbs show time1
Verbs Show Time

_____ runs six miles a day.

_____ ran six miles a day.

_____ will run six miles a day.

_____ has run six miles a day.

Who or what?

= Subject

the subject
The Subject

the wording (usually coming before the verb) that a verb adds information about

the subject1
The Subject

The Job of the subject is to occupy the “territory” (usually) before the verb and answer (or ask) who or what.

Who? What?

nouns and their replacers
Nouns and Their Replacers
  • The importance of the jobs of nouns is second only to the importance of the jobs of verbs.

Higher Pay for Nouns!

nouns and their replacers1
Nouns and Their Replacers
  • The Test for Finding Nouns: Say THE before each word (outside the sentence). If it “fits,” and if the word’s meaning does not change, the word is a noun.
  • This won’t work for

Proper nouns

-- look for the

capital letters.

nouns and their replacers2
Nouns and Their Replacers
  • Practice the Test for Finding Nouns:

The dog jumped over the orange cow.

(Remember that the word shouldn’t change meaning when “the, a, an” is placed in front of it.)

Louie gently coaxed the pig

into its pen.

noun jobs
Noun Jobs
  • As subject (usually before the verb)
  • As an object of a verb

Sunshine has warmth.

  • As an object of a preposition

Shaylene came with friends.

noun replacers
Noun Replacers
  • Pronouns -- Personal

you he she it we they

2. Others --

his yours theirs

someone nothing anybody everything many few another both either some etc.

that those this these

sentenced part 2

Sentenced! Part 2

On the Chain Gang --

Chaining Words Together to Create Correct Sentences

reminder
Reminder
  • The core or nucleus

of every sentence is a verb which adds information and indicates time.

a synonym
A Synonym
  • A verb may also be

called a

predicate.

reminder1
Reminder

The Job of the subject is to occupy the “territory” (usually) before the verb and answer (or ask) who or what.

Who? What?

sentence
Sentence
  • a subject (shown or “implied”)

+

a verb (that is adding information about the subject)

=

complete thought

  • A sentence is a group of words that expresses a complete thought.
  • It will begin with a capital letter and and end with a punctuation mark.
examples of sentences
Examples of Sentences
  • Dinner was good.
  • Can you go to the mall with me?
  • Get me some popcorn.
  • What a great game that was!
about clauses
About Clauses
  • No, not that kind of Claus!
about clauses1
About Clauses
  • A clause is a group of words that has a subject and a verb (predicate).

Subject

+

Verb

=

Clause

changing the topic
Changing the Topic?
  • Are you independent or

dependent?

independent or dependent
Independent or Dependent?
  • In other words, can you stand on your own in life?
an independent person
An Independent Person
  • An independent person can stand on his or her own -- lift his or her own “weight.”
an independent clause
An Independent Clause
  • An independent clause can stand on its own.
about clauses2
About Clauses
  • A clause is a group of words that has a subject and a verb (predicate).

Subject

+

Verb

=

Clause

a dependent person
A Dependent Person
  • A dependent person needs help or care or basics provided for him or her.
a dependent clause
A Dependent Clause
  • A dependent clause needs an independent clause joined to it.
  • A dependent clause can not stand on its own.
about clauses3
About Clauses
  • A clause is a group of words that has a subject and a verb (predicate).

Subject

+

Verb

=

Clause

a dependent clause1
A Dependent Clause

A dependent clause has a subject and a verb (predicate), but does not express a complete thought.

a dependent clause2
A Dependent Clause

Examples:

-- that you will succeed

-- before she went to the mall

-- where I have laid my watch down

what makes a clause dependent
What makes a ClauseDependent?

A word is added to the front of the clause.

-- before she went to the mall

-- where I have laid my watch down

complex sentence
Complex Sentence
  • When you combine a dependent clause with an independent clause, you have a complex sentence.
complex sentence1
Complex Sentence
  • If the dependent clause comes first, use a comma ( , ) to separate it from the rest of the sentence.
dependent or independent
Dependent or Independent?
  • Where the candy was.
  • We never gave the other team a chance.
  • Because I won the contest.
  • Will you help me clean up my room?
sentenced part 3

Sentenced! Part 3

On the Chain Gang --

Chaining Words Together to Create Correct Sentences

why worry about sentences
Why Worry About Sentences?
  • Why should we worry about using complete, correct sentences in our writing?
why worry about sentences1
Why Worry About Sentences?
  • What reasons can you think of?
  • Who would like to be a scribe?
why worry about sentences3
Why Worry About Sentences?
  • To make sense B1
  • Use them every day
  • Organization
  • The way we talk
  • The way we write
  • Not confused
why worry about sentences4
Why Worry About Sentences?
  • Used every day B2
  • Get into college
  • Don’t Act like gangsters
  • Don’t sound stupid
  • So we can communicate with people
  • So Ms. Dorsey won’t get mad
  • Know what we’re trying to say
why worry about sentences5
Why Worry About Sentences?
  • It makes sense
  • To not be a hick
  • To get a good grade
  • To get a job
why worry about sentences6
Why Worry About Sentences?

A1

  • So people can understand us.
  • So you can get a good grade.
  • So we can sound educated.
why worry about sentences7
Why Worry About Sentences?

A2

  • So people will understand
  • We don’t want to talk like Tarzan.
  • Get a good education
  • Can speak with a variety of people
non sentences
Non-Sentences

To the left you see a non-human.

Below you see some non-sentences:

  • green alien
  • although he seems friendly and cute
  • that humans look strange
phrases
Phrases
  • One possible type of non-sentences are PHRASES. These are groups of words that do not contain both a subject and a verb.
phrases1
Phrases
  • One popular phrase is

“Merry Christmas!”

phrases2
Phrases

Here are some

other phrases:

  • red glass ornaments
  • has been hanging
  • on the artificial tree
  • the tall teenage boy
  • without a ladder
just for fun
Just for Fun
  • Can you answer this question?
  • What do a cat on a beach and Christmas have in common?
just for fun1
Just For Fun

The answer is this:

They both have

“Sandy Claus/claws”!

back to work on the chain gang
Back to Work on the Chain Gang!

Can you explain what a clause is?

No, not “Claus,” but “clause.”

back to work on the chain gang1
Back to Work on the Chain Gang!

Reminder: When is a clause not a sentence --

a non-sentence?

back to work on the chain gang2
Back to Work on the Chain Gang!

Reminder: What is a phrase?

three major types of non sentences
Three Major Types of Non-Sentences
  • a fragment
  • a run-on
  • a comma-splice
fragments
Fragments
  • A sentence fragment is a piece of a sentence. It cannot stand on its own and make sense.
fragments1
Fragments

Examples:

  • Went to the theme park yesterday
  • We on the biggest roller coaster
  • My whole family
  • Because I wanted cotton candy

__________

A sentence fragment can be a phrase or a clause (or a single word).

run on s
Run-On’s
  • A run-on sentence contains two complete thoughts that are not joined properly.
run on s1
Run-On’s

Examples:

  • It is cold out I don’t want to wear my heavy coat.
  • Becca will pick me up we’ll go ice skating.

___________

A run-on will be made up of two (or more) independent clauses.

comma splices
Comma Splices
  • A comma-splice is made up of two sentences joined by a comma.

It also is a non-sentence!

comma splices1
Comma Splices

Examples:

Our team practiced every afternoon, we practiced for an hour.

The coach gave the team a pep talk, they played better after that.

-------

A comma-splice will be made up of two (or more) independent clauses.

sentenced part 4

Sentenced! Part 4

On the Chain Gang --

Chaining Words Together to Create Correct Sentences

back to basics
Back to Basics
  • A sentence must have a verb.
  • A sentence also needs a subject, but that may be shown or implied.

(Put the yarn down, and step away from the mouse with your paws up.)

back to basics1
Back to Basics

Sentences are made up of

  • individual words,
  • phrases,
  • and clauses.

Of course, a sentence will also start with a capital letter and end with an end punctuation mark.

back to basics2
Back to Basics

A phrase is a sentence part made up of more than one word.

A clause is a sentence part that has both a subject and a verb.

back to basics3
Back to Basics

An independent clause has both a subject and a verb, and can stand on its own as a complete sentence.

A dependent clause has both a subject and a verb, but cannot stand on its own, usually because something has been added to it.

dependent or independent1
Dependent or Independent?
  • I was surprised.
  • Since she was late.
  • That Ms. Dorsey gave a quiz today.
  • But the snack bar is closed.
  • Sierra rushed to class.
  • Tyler is hungry.
dependent or independent2
Dependent or Independent?
  • I was surprised that Ms. Dorsey gave a quiz today.
  • Since she was late, Sierra rushed to class.
  • Tyler is hungry, but the snack bar is closed.
three major types of non sentences1
Three Major Types of Non-Sentences
  • a fragment
  • a run-on
  • a comma-splice

These are crimes against grammar!

crimes against grammar
Crimes Against Grammar!
  • A fragment is a set of words that does not present a complete thought.
crimes against grammar1
Crimes Against Grammar!
  • A run-on is two complete sentences (two independent clauses) that have been shoved together without being properly joined.
crimes against grammar2
Crimes Against Grammar!
  • A comma-splice is two complete sentences (two independent clauses) that have been shoved together with just a comma inbetween.
crimes against grammar3
Crimes Against Grammar!
  • These are actually criminals that can be reformed! There are ways to fix fragments, run-ons, and comma-splices!
legal ways to create sentences
Legal Ways to Create Sentences
  • Simple Sentence
  • Compound Sentence
  • Complex Sentence

Remember?

legal ways to create sentences1
Legal Ways to Create Sentences
  • Simple Sentence = noun + verb
legal ways to create sentences2
Legal Ways to Create Sentences
  • Simple Sentence = noun + verb

Example:

Mr. Christensen is leaving.

Make up another example.

legal ways to create sentences3
Legal Ways to Create Sentences

2. Compound Sentence

Two independent clauses (complete sentences) are joined together with appropriate conjunctions and punctuation.

legal ways to create sentences4
Legal Ways to Create Sentences

2. Compound Sentence

Mr. Christensen is leaving, and the students are sad.

Make up another compound sentence.

legal ways to create sentences5
Legal Ways to Create Sentences

2. Complex Sentence

A dependent clause and an independent clause are joined together with appropriate conjunctions and punctuation.

legal ways to create sentences6
Legal Ways to Create Sentences

2. Complex Sentence

Example:

After Mr. Christensen

leaves, school won’t be as fun. (or)

School won’t be as fun after Mr. Christensen leaves.

legal ways to create sentences7
Legal Ways to Create Sentences

2. Complex Sentence

Example:

Create your own example, and write it first with the dependent clause first, and then with the dependent clause last.

legal ways to create sentences8
Legal Ways to Create Sentences

2. Complex/

Compound Sentence:

Dependent Clause + two independent clauses, or . . .

legal ways to create sentences9
Legal Ways to Create Sentences

Example: Since Mr. Christensen was such a great student teacher, the students got better grades, and Ms. Dorsey wasn’t as stressed as usual.

Complex/

Compound

Sentence

legal ways to create sentences10
Legal Ways to Create Sentences

Create your own example of a compound/

complex sentence.

Complex/

Compound

Sentence