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  1. Motivating the Unmotivated:Practical Strategies for Teaching the Hard-to-Reach StudentBER workshop attended 12/2/09Presented by: Chick Moorman

  2. Instructions This PowerPoint is interactive. Please feel free to click on hyperlinked text to navigate throughout the presentation to specific areas that may interest you. If there is no hyperlinked text, just click and you will move to the next page. You may also just go through the presentation one slide at a time. Enjoy!

  3. Index • Three most prevalent types of unmotivated students 1. Power 2. Models 3. Connectiveness 2. Strategies 1. Power 2. Models 3. Connectiveness 3. Behaviors that Indicate a Problem With: 1. Power 2. Models 3. Connectiveness

  4. The three most prevalent types of unmotivated students 1. Students who are looking to gain Power 2. Students who are lacking appropriate Models 3. Students who are lacking Connectiveness Index

  5. Power Definition: Having the resources, the opportunity, and the capability to influence the circumstances of one’s own life. A sense of power is about: - Having the competence to do what I must. - Believing that I can do what I set out to do. - Feeling that I can handle what is put before me. - Knowing that I can get what I need in order to do what I must. - Feeling that I am in charge of my own life. - Knowing that others cannot make me do anything I really do not want to do. - Feeling that I can make decisions and solve most of my problems. Go To: • It’s a Problem if… • Behaviors that Indicate a Problem with Power • Power Strategies • Index

  6. Behaviors that Indicate a Problem with Power: 1. Often stubborn and excessively bossy. 2. Frequently act helpless. 3. Control through aggression or withdrawal. 4. Avoid being in charge of others. 5. React poorly to frustration. 6. Avoid taking responsibility and blame others. 7. Do not exercise initiative. 8. Avoid tasks that are challenging. 9. Lack emotional self-control. 10. Use unself-responsible language. 11. Use “give up” excuses. 12. Withhold resources that others need. 13. Undermine decisions that others make. 14. Unilaterally alter rules. 15. Take credit for the accomplishments of others (inc. cheating). 16. Are excessively critical of others’ accomplishments. 17. Have trouble making decisions. 18. Don’t follow through. 19. Create distractions. Index

  7. It’s a Problem If… Number: If a student does a lot of the behaviors mentioned. Frequency: The student does the behaviors often. Intensity: The student does the behaviors with emotionality or to the extreme. Index

  8. Power Strategies: 1. Choose, Decide, Pick (3 Strategies) 2. Please Make a Different Choice 3. Use Freedom Phrases 4. Stretch, Risk, Challenge 5. Risk Pads 6. Please Make a BE Choice 7. Employ Attribute Theory 8. Employ the “I Can’t” Antidote 9. Behave Calmly and Consistently 10. Move UP Before You Move IN 11. Teach Conflict Resolution 12. Involve Students in the Process of Evaluation and Self-Evaluation 13. Make Yourself Dispensable 14. Invite Student Input 15. Refrain from Teacher Talk that Escalates 16. Communicate Anger Without Wounding the Spirit Index

  9. Choose, Decide, Pick Strategy 1 (go to Strategy 2, Strategy 3) • The essential strategy in helping students become empowered is promoting their ability to make decisions. Any decision we can get them to make successfully adds a small increment to their sense of personal power. • Offering students a choice invites them to exercise control and participate in self-management. Choice-making opportunities enable students to experience and see the control they have. When you give students choices you are empowering them. • Teacher Talk: “You can choose to do it on the green paper or the red paper.” Examples of Controlled Choices Power Strategies Index Index

  10. Examples of Controlled Choices 1. For language arts, place three pictures on the chalkboard and have students choose one to write about. 2. Make a math assignment that requires completing either the odd-numbered or even-numbered problems. 3. Give students two choices for how to make up work missed while absent. 4. Let students make their picture on red or green paper. 5. Allow cooperative groups to choose to do a skit, write a commercial, or create an advertisement to demonstrate their learning. • For more examples, please see Liz Go to: • Strategy 1 • Strategy 2 • Power Strategies Index • Index

  11. Choose, Decide, Pick Strategy 2 (go to Strategy 1, Strategy 3, Index) • Use Choose, Decide and Pick to help students see the choices they are making. • In many daily situations children do not see themselves as responsible. They blame the other person (“He made me do it.”) or they disown their problems (“It’s not my fault.”) In many cases, children are not aware at a conscious level that they are making a choice. Our job as teachers is to confront them gently by pointing out their choices and bringing them to consciousness. • It is time to help students see the choices that they make, and that they communicate these choices through their behaviors. It is also time to help them know that they can make other choices. • Teacher Talk: “I see you chose to ignore her when she teased you.” • Helping children perceive the choices they make is important. You let them know you know they are choosing when you use Teacher Talk that contains the words choose, decide, and pick. • Examples of using choose, decide and pick to notice choices or inquire about choice

  12. Examples of using choose, decide and pick to notice choices or inquire about choice 1. I noticed that you chose to feel angry during PE class. 2. I see you decided to staple it rather than use tape. 3. What behavior did you pick when the assembly ran over? 4. I see you decided to work with Carlos. 5. What attitude did you pick when the problems got tougher? 6. I noticed you picked words to tell him about your frustration. • For more examples, please see Liz Go to: • Strategy 1 • Strategy 3 • Power Strategies Index • Index

  13. Choose, Decide, Pick Strategy 3 • Use Choose, Decide, and Pick to formulate consequences • Students don’t always see the connection between the choices they make and the results which follow. By using Teacher Talk that includes choose/decide/pick you help them take ownership for the consequences that flow from their choices. • “If you choose to do it on the wrong side again, you’ll be deciding to do it over.” • “If you decide to bring you library books back by Monday, you’ll have chosen the opportunity to check out another book.” • It’s not the severity of the consequences, it’s the certainty of them (you can’t give in!). Go to: • Strategy 1 • Strategy 2 • Power Strategies Index • Index

  14. Power Strategy 2: Please make a different choice • “I’m being distracted by that noise. Please make a different choice.” • “Sharpening pencils is not appropriate at this time. Please make a different choice.” • “If you’re standing next to someone you can’t sit by at the assembly without distracting others, please make a new choice.” Index

  15. Power Strategy 3:Use Freedom Phrases • Use the Freedom Phrase “you decide” when the answer to a student’s question would be yes. If it is not okay for the student to do what they are asking, simply say no. • Using this phrase places the decision-making responsibilities on the students and frees the teacher from the authoritative role. Examples of Freedom Phrases Index

  16. Freedom Phrases • You decide. • It’s up to you. • You choose. • You can pick. • You get to decide. • You make that decision. • I’m comfortable with whatever you decide. Index

  17. Adding a Condition to Freedom Phrases • Through adding a condition to a Freedom Phrase, you help students develop their decision-making ability. • Regardless of the phrase you use, the message to the students is one of respect. You are telling them, “I trust your judgment. You are capable of making many of your own decisions. You know what is best for you and your class.” Index

  18. Examples of Adding Conditions to Freedom Phrases Q: “May I sharpen my pencils now?” A: “If you can do it without disturbing the reading group. You decide.” Q: “May I go to the library now?” A: “My concern is that you be back here at 11:15. You choose.” Index

  19. Power Strategy 4: Stretch, Risk, Challenge • To encourage your students to stretch and accept the risk of self-challenge, add the cue words risk, challenge, and stretch to your teacher talk. • This teaches that mistakes are valuable and useful. Examples of stretch, risk, challenge Index

  20. Examples of stretch, risk, challenge • “Thank you for taking a risk.” • “Who would be willing to take a risk on this one?” • “That was some stretch you attempted. Thanks!” • “Who feels like accepting a challenge today?” Index

  21. Power Strategy 5:Use Risk Pads • Risk Pads are a tool that will encourage risk taking among students. • Risk Pads are simply pads of scrap paper that a teacher can give to students to try new and difficult problems. • Through the use of special pads with a special name, a teacher will legitimize taking risks and accepting challenges in the classroom. Index

  22. Power Strategy 6:Please Make a BE Choice • “Who do you want to be?” • Being gives birth to doing. • Although you may not always choose what you get to do in this class, you can always decide how you want to be. Index

  23. Power Strategy 7: Employ Attribute Theory • Students who feel unempowered attribute the things that happen to them in their lives to luck, magic, circumstance, no cause of their own, etc. “She gave me a B.” • Student with a strong inner sense of personal power attribute the things that happen to them to effort, energy, persistence, study, commitment and their behaviors. “I chose a C.” “He studied harder than I did.” • Please see Liz for a variety of attribute awareness activities that you can do with your students. Index

  24. Power Strategy 8:Employ the “I Can’t” Antidote • Don’t tell kids to “Try.” To try and not succeed equals failure. • Instead, tell your students to: • “Act as if” they know what they’re doing. • “Pretend” that they’ve done this before. • “Play like” they know what they’re doing. • “If you did know, what would you do?” This is designed to get a student doing, not necessarily doing it correctly. At least they are doing it. Index

  25. Power Strategy 9:Behave Calmly and Consistently • Do not overreact to the loud, boisterous students. • Their goal is to get you angry so they can focus on your anger rather than on their reaction in the situation. • They are also invested in having you blow it and then feel guilty. Liz has a great vignette that shows this. Index

  26. Power Strategy 10:Move UP Before You Move IN • One important aspect of managing students low in power is learning to move UP in your consciousness before you move IN with your action. • To insure that the action you take flows from love as well as logic – pause, take 3 deep breaths and actively change your frame of mind before you respond. Liz has a great vignette about this strategy. 5 Strategies to Move UP before Moving IN Index

  27. Make a BE Choice Before You Make a DO Choice • As educators, we make DO choices regularly. • Not as familiar to many teachers is the concept of making a BE choice. A BE choice occurs when you purposefully choose how you are going to BE when you do whatever it is that you decide to do. Index

  28. Talk to Yourself Before You Talk to The Child • By paying attention to your thoughts and purposefully shaping the conversation you have with yourself, you take charge of your attitude, your energy, and your relationship to the teaching moment that is before you. • Using encouraging self-talk is one way to effectively take charge and manage your own mind. This will help you to create the frame of mind you desire. • “I don’t have to take this personally. This isn’t about me.” • “The behavior is age appropriate.” • “Helpful lessons spring from uncomfortable situations. This situation has the potential to create learning and healing for me and this student.” Index

  29. See It All As Perfect • Another mind management technique you can use to Move UP in your consciousness is to choose to see your present circumstance as perfect. • If all your students pass a chapter test, that’s perfect. If they all fail, that’s perfect too. You now have the perfect information you need to design what you will do next. Index

  30. Accept That What is, is • If you find yourself thinking that things should be other than they are – that your students should be different, that they should know better, or that you should have done something differently – you are emotionally resisting and fighting what is. Index

  31. Make No Assumptions • As adults, we think we know – we think we know why the student lied to use, we think we know what the student is thinking. • Allowing assumptions to control your mind leads to conflict and misunderstanding. • Tell yourself: “I may not know for sure what is going on here. I will keep an open mind. Understanding is my top priority.” Index

  32. Power Strategy 10:Teach Conflict Resolution • Help students be aware of how they make decisions. Point out the choices they are making. • Teach and use decision-making processes. There is a close correlation between democratic processes and a sense of power (voting, consensus seeking, using representatives). Index

  33. Give students a solution-seeking process: • Teach children to solve problems. Give them the opportunity to work out their own solutions, but also show them methods for attacking problems. • Give students a solution-seeking process: • Define the problem • List alternatives • Reach consensus • Implement the plan • Evaluate later Model the search for solutions. Index

  34. Power Strategy 11:Involve Students in the Process of Evaluation and Self-Evaluation • Evaluation is a power issue. • The one who evaluates has the power. Liz has numerous examples of how to involve students in the evaluation and self-evaluation process. Index

  35. Power Strategy 12:Make Yourself Dispensable • All power-raising activities have to do with turning significant decisions over to students. • Class jobs • Common supplies • Other experts/peer counseling • Routines • Time management/prioritizing • “Ask three before me.” • “Someone in your group knows.” Index

  36. Power Strategy 13:Invite Student Input • Actively seek student opinions, ideas, suggestions, and concerns on a wide variety of topics. • It matters less what specific opinions are shared and more that teachers simply be there to acknowledge them without judgment. • It is important to develop questions that have multiple right answers: • What’s one good reason… • Why might they have… Index

  37. Ways to Invite Student Input • What would you do if…? • If you lived in a world… • Paragraph Piles • “I urge” telegrams • Add-on opinion chains • Sharing time • Journal writing • Rank order • Goal profiles • Academic contracts • Responsibility contracts Liz has more details about all of these. Index

  38. Power Strategy 14:Refrain from Teacher Talk that Escalates • Asking questions to which you already have the answer: • Do you know where your seat is? • What did I just tell you? Such questions are thinly veiled accusations that require no answer, and these questions tend to be smacked with ridicule and sarcasm. If your intention is to show irritation or frustration, openly state that you are irritated or frustrated to the student. If your intention is to remind students of something, come right out and remind them. Deliver your message in clear, direct, respectful language. Index

  39. Power Strategy 14:Refrain from Teacher Talk that Escalates • Giving information they already have: • When you give students information they already have, such as stopping a lesson in order to tell a student who is late that they are late, you are publicly humiliating the student. • This kind of information: • Serves no useful purpose • Invites embarrassment, resentment and resistance • Accuses rather than welcomes • Is counterproductive Index

  40. Options for giving information • Instead of “you lost your place,” say, “We’re on page 72.” • At the time of the offense, the less said the better. • Your immediate reaction will reinforce or extinguish behaviors. • Too much attention (positive or negative) will encourage the behavior. Index

  41. Power Strategy 15:Communicate Anger Without Wounding the Spirit • Use the describe/describe/describe teaching technique: • Describe what you see or hear. • Describe what you’re feeling (one word). • Describe what needs to be done. Index

  42. Models Definition: One must be able to refer to adequate examples in order to establish meaningful values, ideals, and personal standards Students with a strong sense of models: - Use models to make sense out of their lives. - Use models to clarify their own standards and live up to them. - Know the standards of performance by which they will be judged and realize how close they are to those standards. - Know what quality work looks like. - Make sense of what is going on around them. - Use their values to guide them. - Look up to and respect positive attributes in others and themselves. Go To: • It’s a Problem if… • Behaviors that Indicate a Problem with Models • Models Strategies • Index

  43. Behaviors that Indicate a Problem with Mental Models • Do not respond well to instruction. • Waste time. • Get confused easily. • Sloppy and messy with self and materials. • Usually not well organized. • Often do not tell the truth (don’t know if it’s the truth or not – not outright liars). • Have difficult time deciding what to do. • Do not seem headed in any direction. • Are unclear about what they want to say or do. • Do the minimum amount of work. • Often insist there is only one way to do something. • May have rigid standards. • Often act contrary to ethical standards they espouse (strongly against animal cruelty and then you find them torturing flies). • Confuse impulsive acts with goals they have agreed upon (save money for the prom and then spend it on a new iPod). Index

  44. Model Strategies 1. Use the Teacher Talk strategy, “Next Time” 2. Teach how to do things in class 3. Make expectations clear and simple 4. Use the One Minute Behavior Modifier 5. “Because…” 6. Give constructive examples of how students can improve 7. See one, do one, teach one 8. Divide and limit information 9. Check on students soon and often 10. Create structure 11. Be redundant 12. Help students get organized 13. Demonstrate patterns 14. Help students set goals 15. Provide role models – mentor and mentee 16. Hold students accountable 17. Be consistent 18. Use visualization Index

  45. Use the Teacher Talk Strategy, “Next time.” • “Next time” helps students understand how to change their behavior to meet your expectations. Ex: “Next time, please let me finish my sentence before you begin talking.” Index

  46. Teach How to do Things in Class • Make sure students have a clear understanding of how to do things in class. Spend time teaching (and write out) directions, rules and regulations, train students how to work effectively in your classroom. If you want a behavior, you have to teach the behavior. Index

  47. Make Expectations Clear and Simple. • Anything you can do to reduce ambiguity will help students understand expectations. Let them see, touch, hear an example of “quality” work. • Limit to 3-5 things to remember/do. Index

  48. Use the One Minute Behavior Modifier • I love this one! • First, you have to pick a behavior and make a commitment to eliminate it. Then, give it a name – If you can name it, you can tame it! • Example: If a student calls out, you can name it “Illegal Word Burst”. Other examples are “Verbal Violence” or “Illegal Pencil Sharpening”. • See the steps on the next page… Index

  49. One Minute Behavior Modifier • When the student does the behavior, say: (Student), that is (name the behavior). Then say, “It’s against the class rules” or “It doesn’t work with me.” Give a reason (start with word “because”). Then, teach the new, appropriate replacement behavior. Ex: “Anthony, that’s whining, and whining doesn’t work with me because I can’t understand you and it hurts my ears. What works with me is to ask in your normal voice. Sometimes you’ll get it, sometimes you won’t. Let’s practice.” See Liz for more examples. Index

  50. One Minute Behavior Modifier • The Power of One • You need to do this every single time you hear or witness the behavior you want to get rid of. • Only do this for one behavior at a time. • Treat each incident as if it’s the first time it’s ever happened – if you start to get frustrated, you may want to add consequences, such as a “whine-free zone.” • For the example on the previous slide, you would say everything written, then add, “This is a whine-free zone. If you continue to whine, you can go to the whining zone, which is over there, in the back of the room. When you are ready to talk in your normal voice, you may re-enter the whine-free zone.” Index