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GENETIKA 2. GENETIKA 2. Hromatin. Centriole. Jedarce. Jedrova opna. Membrana ćelije. Hromatin Tokom interfaze u jedru je hromatin. Inte rfaza - vreme između dve ćelijske deobe. Hromatin: DNK + proteini (histoni i nehistonski proteini)

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GENETIKA 2


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    1. GENETIKA 2 GENETIKA 2

    2. Hromatin Centriole Jedarce Jedrova opna Membrana ćelije Hromatin Tokom interfaze u jedru je hromatin. Interfaza - vreme između dve ćelijske deobe

    3. Hromatin: DNK + proteini (histoni i nehistonski proteini) Hromatin čine dugačke isprepletane niti (hromatinska vlakna). Tokom ćelijske deobe dolazi do kondenzovanja hromatinskih vlakana, skraćuju se, zadebljavaju i postaju vidljivi kao zasebni hromozomi koje možemo izbrojati. Chromatin vs. Chromosome

    4. udžbenik: 80,81 str.

    5. Telesne ćelije imaju 46 hromozoma = diploidan broj2n 44 autozoma + 2 polna hromozoma Autozomi: 22 nasleđena od majke, 22 od oca (homologi hromozomi) Homologi hromozomi su hromozomi istog oblika i veličine, grupisani su u 22 para. Polni hromozomi su x i y hromozom. Oni nisu homologi, x hromozom je veći od y hromozoma. x i y hromozom nemaju iste gene. Polne ćelije (gameti) imaju 23 hromozoma = haploidan brojn 22 autozoma + 1 polni hromozom jajna ćelija 22x spermatozoid 22x ili 22y jajna ćelija + spermatozoid = zigot(oplođena jajna ćelija) n + n = 2n 23 + 23 = 46 22x + 22x = 44xx (žensko) 22x + 22y = 44xy (muško) udžbenik: 48,49,50 str.

    6. Genetics is the study of heredity and how traits are passed along from parents to offspring. Genes are contained within the chromosomes found within the egg and sperm. Each parent contributes one half of each pair or 23 chromosomes to their child, 22 autosomal and 1 sex chromosome.

    7. Kariotip U praksi se izraz kariotip koristi i za kariogram. Kariogram - hromozomi grupisani po veličini i obliku A genome is the complete set of geneticinformation in an organism. It provides all of the information the organism requires to function. In living organisms, the genome is stored inchromosomes.

    8. Idiogram Šematski prikaz hromozoma. Mape gena. How do scientists find their way around a chromosome? With chromosome maps called idiograms, researchers can pinpoint the locations of genes and locate abnormal gene forms.

    9. Autozomno - recesivno nasleđivanje Primeri: Albinizam AA, Aa = normalna pigmentacija aa = albino AA, Aa = zdravi aa = bolesni Cistična fibroza udžbenik: 69,70 str.

    10. Autozomno - dominantno nasleđivanje Primeri: Patuljast rast Polidaktilija Hantingtonova bolest AA, Aa = bolesni aa = zdravi Huntington disease, a progressive and fatal disorder of the nervous system that develops between the ages of 30 and 50 years; caused by an expansion of a trinucleotide repeat and inherited as a dominant trait. udžbenik: 70 str.

    11. Nasleđivanje vezano za pol Primeri: Hemofilija Poremećaji u razlikovanju boja Najpoznatiji poremećaj - daltonizam-nemogućnost razlikovanja crvene i zelene boje. udžbenik: 49,50,70 str.

    12. Nasleđivanje hemofilije majka otac P: XX xXY g: X X X Y F1: XX XX XY XY ćerke sinovi ćerke su zdrave ali su nosioci mutacije sinovi su zdravi i nisu nosioci mutacije majka otac P: XXxXY g: X XX Y F1: XXXX XY XY ćerke sinovi 50% ćerki ima mutaciju, 50% nema 50% sinova je zdravo, 50% ima hemofiliju

    13. Primer rodoslova: Nasleđivanje vezano za pol (x hromozom) Muškarac i žena bez mutiranih gena Žena nosilac mutacije Muškarac sa poremećajem XY XX X X X Y

    14. Daunov sindrom 47 hromozoma udžbenik: 71 str.

    15. Kariotip osobe koja ima Daunov sindrom (trizomija 21-og hromozoma)

    16. Klinefelterov sindrom 47 hromozoma udžbenik: 72 str. Who Discovered Klinefelter Syndrome? Dr. Harry Klinefelter discovered the syndrome while working with nine male patients at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston in 1942. The actual genetics were worked out later, from 1956-1959 by Drs. Joe Hin Tjio, Albert Lavan and Patricia Jacobs.

    17. Kariotip muškarca koji ima Klinefelterov sindrom (xxy)

    18. Tarnerov sindrom 45 hromozoma Kariotip žene koja ima Tarnerov sindrom (xo) udžbenik: 72 str.

    19. Amniocinteza U plodovoj vodi se nalaze otpale ćelije bebe.To su ćelije kože,creva i bubrega jer beba sve izlučevine ispušta u plodovu vodu. Ispitivanjem ovih ćelija može se utvrditi da li dete ima nekihromozomski poremećaj. Više o ovoj temi kada budemo radili oblast Razviće životinja. Amniocentesis A method of prenatal testing in which amniotic fluid is withdrawn from the uterus through a needle. The fluid and the fetal cells it contains are analyzed to detect biochemical or chromosomal disorders. prof.Sonja Kovačević