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Marketing

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  1. Marketing • What is Marketing? • Segmentation and Marketing • Marketing Services

  2. What is Marketing • Human activity directed towards satisfying needs and wants through “exchange” processes

  3. What is Marketing • A social and managerial process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating, offering and exchanging products of value with others

  4. What is Marketing • Marketing, like many other terms associated with recreation and leisure, is not easily defined • Ideas about marketing have changed over time • One might simply define marketing as “anything that facilitates exchange”

  5. What is Marketing • Please note that marketing and selling are not the same thing! • Marketing is often given negative association based on its confusion with selling

  6. Identifying A Market • Markets are identified in numerous ways: • Looking at existing products • Listening to consumer complaints/suggestions • Demographic trends • Direct consumer solicitation

  7. Market Segmentation • Once a market is identified, the market is then divided into segments • This division leads to an identification of subgroups of the larger market as being made up of clusters of people with like qualities

  8. Target Marketing • Once segments are identified and labeled, products can be marketed at a particular segment. This is called target marketing. • Target marketing is more effecting than general blanket marketing in that there is an indication that your market is clearly interested in your product.

  9. Target Marketing • For many scholars, target marketing is the only true marketing based on its pre-identification of a select market • Often blanket marketing may be used in advance to help identify a particular market segment (consumer response, surveys, etc may be used)

  10. Positioning • The combination between the selected target market and the appropriate market mix (see 4Ps)

  11. Marketing Services • As discussed before, resorts often market services or experiences, rather than goods products • Because of their intangible quality, service products and experiential products may require special marketing techniques

  12. 4Ps of Marketing • Product • Price • Place • Promotion • (Oddly enough, the customer is not part of the traditional 4Ps of marketing)

  13. 4Ps of Marketing • The 4Ps may not be sufficient given that the customer is present during the service production and delivery process • The customer will encounter the “service factory” and other people that may impact the subjective quality of the service product

  14. 3 Additional Ps • Physical Evidence • Process (and Procedure) • People

  15. Physical Evidence • There are always tangible aspects of the service product: • Appearance and condition of facilities • Hotel rooms • Restaurants • The kind of car your lawyer drives???

  16. Physical Evidence • Service products may be difficult to appreciate at a later date (unlike goods products) • Service providers often supply tangible reminders of the service • T-shirts • Post cards • Bath robes • Other souvenirs

  17. Process and Procedure • Processes often affect the nature of a service product more than a goods product • The more restrictive the process, the more likely the customer will be unsatisfied • Penalties for late bookings • Restaurant dress codes • Rules of conduct • Hours of use

  18. People • Possible the most important of the Ps • People can include the employees of the service provider as well as the customers

  19. People • In the purchase of goods products, the attitude or appearance of the personnel manufacturing the product is of little interest and most likely not apparent (except when Nike or some other company is accused of sweat shopping)

  20. People • Other customers purchasing the same good are encountered only during the purchase process itself (unlike a service product…say a theme park…where other customers are encountered continually and may greatly affect the environment and ultimately the satisfaction levels of that product)

  21. People • The consumer’s own temperament or recent experiences are much less likely to affect the performance of a good’s product

  22. Key Terms • Satisfaction • Quality • Value

  23. Market Segmentation Magic • Wal-Mart • Disney Cruise Lines

  24. Wal-Mart

  25. Brand Distinction • Hotels use brands to attract different audiences • Brands may be created within one hotel chain, or a chain may buy another chain, which gives them additional brands

  26. Brand Distinction • Until the 1980s, it was often thought that one brand name with many levels was the best policy • It was felt that this might confuse customers

  27. Brand Distinction • During the late 1980s and definitely in the 1990s, creating new brands become the trend • Corporate take-over was also a big trend of the 1990s • Each audience could then clearly identify with a certain brand and avoid confusion

  28. “Purina” Method • Own the competition • Create as many possible variations on your product as possible to appeal to as many different market segments as possible • You may even create directly competing brands that target the same market segment

  29. Pampers/Luvs • Both companies are owned by Proctor and Gamble • To increase their shelf space, Proctor and Gamble invented Luvs • Appealed to slightly different market segment • Allowed for Proctor and Gamble to dominate the shelf space (if you want Pampers, you have to carry Luvs too) • Coke does the same thing

  30. Hotels on the Highway • Marriott • Grouping different brands to attract new convention markets • Fills up zoned “shelf space” at highway exits

  31. Disney/Las Vegas • Own several resort properties with different themes to appeal to different markets • Own several theme parks to beat out competition • Movie studios create battles between their top films, which gives them more headline space in the press

  32. Hyatt Regency • Hyatt Regency and Hyatt • Hyatt • Hyatt Regency, Grand Hyatt and Park Hyatt • Hyatt sold off less glamorous hotels

  33. Hyatt Regency, Atlanta(The first atrium hotel)

  34. Hyatt Regency, San Francisco

  35. Hyatt Object

  36. Hyatt Regency, Dallas

  37. Hyatt Regency, Kansas City(Largest structure disaster in terms of human life)

  38. Marriott Marquis, Atlanta(Looks more like a Hyatt – Kind of like Coke trying to taste like Pepsi)

  39. Marriott Marquis, Atlanta

  40. Marriott • Marriott Hotels and Resorts • Marriott Executive Apartments • Marriott International • Ritz-Carlton • Marriott Vacation Club International • Renaissance Hotels and Resorts • Residence Inn • Courtyard • Town Place Suites • Spring Hill Suites • Fairfield Inn

  41. Starwood • Westin • W Hotels • Sheraton • Four Points • St Regis • Luxury Connection

  42. Hilton • Hilton • Doubletree • Embassy Suites • Conrad Hotels • Hampton Inn • Hilton Grand Vacation Club • Hampton Inn and Suites • Hilton Garden Inn • Homewood Suites

  43. InterContinental Hotels Group • InterContinental Hotels and Resorts • Crowne Plaza Hotels and Resorts • Holiday Inn Hotels and Resorts • Holiday Inn Express • Holiday Inn Select • Holiday Inn Garden Court • Staybridge Suites

  44. Cendant(World’s Largest) • Ramada Inn (although Ramada International is owned by Marriott) • Super 8 Motels • Howard Johnson’s • Days Inn • Travel Lodge • AmeriHost Inn • Knights Inn

  45. Carlson Companies • Radisson Hotels • TGI Fridays • Park Plaza Hotels and Suites • Park Inn • Country Inn and Suites • Golden Arch Hotels

  46. Choice • Quality Inn • Comfort Inn • Roadway Inn • Comfort Suites • Sleep Inn • Clarion • Econo Lodge

  47. InterContinental Hotels Group • InterContinental Hotels and Resorts • Crowne Plaza Hotels and Resorts • Holiday Inn Hotels and Resorts • Holiday Inn Express • Holiday Inn Select • Holiday Inn Garden Court • Staybridge Suites

  48. Articles/Websites • John Portman (Architect of the Hyatt Regency, Atlanta; Hyatt Regency, San Francisco and Marriott Marquis, Atlanta) http://mywebpages.comcast.net/rlinger/Georgia/portman.html • Hyatt Regency, Kansas City Tragedy http://www.glendale-h.schools.nsw.edu.au/faculty_pages/ind_arts_web/bridgeweb/Hyatt_page.htm • Top 50 Hotel Companies http://www.ahla.com/products_info_center_top50.asp • Hyatt Regency, Atlanta http://mywebpages.comcast.net/rlinger/Georgia/Atlanta/Downtown/hyatt.html • Marriott Marquis, Atlanta http://www.bluffton.edu/~sullivanm/atlanta/portmanmarriott/marriott.html

  49. Articles/Websites • List of hotel chains and brandshttp://www.hospitalitynet.org/web/Hotel_Chains_&_Brands/page21.html • Building brand equityhttp://www.hospitalitynet.org/news/4010351.search?query=%22old+logo%22+hyatt • Rebranding begins at the tophttp://www.hotelsmag.com/0302/0302update.html • Starwood Hotels http://www.starwood.com/