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SEND IT TO THE MOON. David Heck Advanced Manufacturing Research & Development Boeing – Phantom Works, St. Louis, Mo. Space Shuttle Return to Flight July 2005 Discover Returned with 13 tons of ISS trash 26,000 pounds total old equipment, packaging, wiring waste water, human waste, etc.

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slide2

SEND IT TO THE MOON

David Heck

Advanced Manufacturing Research & Development

Boeing – Phantom Works, St. Louis, Mo

slide3

Space Shuttle Return to Flight

  • July 2005 Discover
    • Returned with 13 tons of ISS trash
      • 26,000 pounds total
      • old equipment, packaging, wiring
      • waste water, human waste, etc
slide4

Returned with 13 tons of ISS trash (2 years worth)

    • 26,000 pounds total
    • old equipment, packaging, wiring
    • waste water, human waste, etc
    • Paid lots of $$ to get it to orbit
    • Paying more to bring it home
slide8

Shower Head

Vacuum Hose

slide9

Vacuum Hose

Sit here

Footrest

slide12

3558 g/CM-d TOTAL

  • 1918 g Human Waste = 54%
  • 423 g bio-degradable
  • Total degradable = 66%

(5)

589

(5)

231

In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU)

slide13

26,000 pounds total of trash

    • old equipment, packaging, wiring
    • waste water, human waste, etc
    • Based on typical ISS output,
      • 54% human waste
      • 66% bio-related
    • Actual composition:
      • 14,410 lbs. human waste
      • 1,600 lbs. other bio-degradable
slide14

Why is this important ?

  • Launch costs are prohibitive
  • Delta IV Medium –
    • $130 million puts 25,000 pounds in LEO
    • about $5000 per pound to LEO
    • Can land 4400 pounds on Lunar surface
    • $30,000 per pound to Lunar surface
slide16

Why In-Situ ?

  • 6 ounce can of Wasabi Peas -
  • 12 bottle of ketchup -
  • Not having to ship EVERYTHING
  • up from the Earth -

$11,250

$22,500

PRICELESS

slide17

Living off the land

In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU)

slide19

Lunar Landings, circa 1970

  • 6 Apollo
  • 3 Luna
  • 840 lbs.
  • Wash U. regional node for analysis

11

slide20

4.5 %

Titanium

6 %

5.5 %

40 %

14 %

19 %

slide21

40% oxygen – rocket oxidizer, O2

  • 19 % silicon – glass & ceramics
  • 14% iron - iron & steel products – construction
  • 6% Titanium - high temperature & spacecraft
  • 5.5% Aluminum – light weight spacecraft parts
  • 4.5%Magnesium – light weight parts, alloy element
  • Others: Chrome, Manganese, Sulphur, Potassium, Carbon (00.014%)
    • 850 pounds from 6 sites. What else could we find ?
slide24

Lunar Industry

  • Mining
    • Robotic Sweeper – 2 foot wide, 1 inch regolith depth
    • Moving at 1 mile per hour
    • (5280 ft per hour = 1.5 ft per sec)
    • Gathers 880 ft3 PER HOUR
    • = 10 ft x 10 ft x 8.8 feet high
    • @13% Iron, 25% utilization yields 28 ft3 of IRON
    • = 42 - 4 ft X 4 ft X 1 inch sheets PER HOUR !

ADD Carbon = STEEL

slide25

Lunar Industry

  • Ground transport
    • lunar bus, carts, miners, rovers
    • Maglev trains & tracks
    • Mass driver launchers
  • Structures
    • blast deflectors, reflectors, antennas, sun shades
    • tanks, towers, rails/tracks
    • habitats, work areas
    • power transmission
  • Systems
    • Gas & fluid processing equipment & machines
    • Waste processing & recycling
    • Power generation & transmission
slide26

Spherical Tanks

“Stick” Reflectors

slide28

How do we get it there ?

  • Three main steps
    • Push into Trans-Lunar Injection trajectory
    • Brake into Lunar orbit (LOI)
    • De-orbit & land on the Moon
    • Requires lots of Fuel
slide29

How do we get it there ?

  • Easy Way -
    • Upper Stage Chemical Rocket booster
    • Traditional rocket powered Lander
    • Lots of mass to push to Moon
    • Requires lots of Fuel
    • How Much ??
slide30

Lessons from Apollo*

  • Data from NASA Apollo 11 Press Kit
  • Shows spacecraft weight delivered to LEO
    • (Low Earth Orbit)
  • Shows weights for each portion of Apollo 11
    • Command & Service Module
    • L.E.M. (Descent and Ascent stages)
    • Various sub-systems (water, ECS package, etc.)
  • Propellant weights for each stage, engine specs
  • Allows calculation of “Parametric” values
slide34

Lessons from Apollo*

Trans Lunar Injection Summary

  • For every 10,000 lbs in LEO, Apollo puts 3300 lbs in TLI
  • Requires LOX/LH2 J-2 class engines
  • Payload Ratio is .33
  • Delta II (7925H-10L) can place 10,120 lbs in LEO
    • Current MB-60 engine is higher performance than J-2
    • Isp = 467 versus Isp = 420 for J-2
    • Required propellant = 10,120*.666*(420/467) = 6019 lbs
    • Payload to LLO = 10,120-6019 = 4101 lbs (extra 761#)
  • Delta IV (5,4) can place 25,300 lbs in LEO
    • Propellant = 15,048 lbs
    • Payload to TLI = 10,252 lbs
    • Payload Ratio is .33
slide35

Lessons from Apollo*

  • Lunar Orbit Insertion
  • Apollo Summary
    • Command Service Module/LEM weight at TLI = 100,369
    • LOI Propellant used = 12,011 lbs MMH/NTO
    • Apollo Isp = 318 versus Isp = 338 for RS-72
    • Fuel fraction = .112 ……. Payload fraction = .887
  • Delta II (TLI = 4101 lbs) payload to LLO = 3,639 lbs
  • Delta IV (5,4)(TLI = 10,252) payload to LLO = 9,099 lbs
  • Payload Ratio is . 887
slide36

Lessons from Apollo*

  • Lunar LANDING
  • Apollo Summary
    • LEM weight 33,205 (Apollo 11)
    • Descent Propellant used = 18,100 lbs MMH/NTO
    • Payload to Lunar Surface = 14,501 lbs ….
    • Apollo Isp = 318 versus Isp = 338 for RS-72
    • Apply to LEM weights, current fractions are …
    • Fuel fraction = .513 ……. Payload fraction = .487
  • Delta II (LLO = 3639 lbs) payload to Lunar Surface = 1,772 lbs
  • Delta IV (LLO = 9,099) payload to Lunar Surface = 4431 lbs !!!!
  • Payload fraction = .487
slide37

Lessons from Apollo*

  • Summary of TLI, LOI, LL
  • TLI fraction = .33 LOI fraction = .887
  • L Landing = .487
  • Delta IV (5,4) puts 25,300 lbs in LEO
  • Lands 4431 pounds on the surface = 17% Payload
  • For our 8,800 pounds of … schtuff, we need 52,000 pounds of fuel
  • @ $5,000 per pound, cost = $258,000,000
slide38

Other Ideas

  • Mars Rover Landing Bag
  • Ion Propulsion
    • ISP = 8,000 vs. 460 for LH2
    • Fuel weight now 4,000 lbs
    • Cost is $20,000,000
slide39

IS THIS REALLY GOING TO HAPPEN ?

US South Pole Research Station

University of Arizona Controlled Environment Ag. Center

http://ag.arizona.edu/ceac/CEACresearch/International/004.htm

slide41

University of Arizona Controlled Environment Ag. Center

Mars Simulation Development Unit

http://ag.arizona.edu/ceac/CEACresearch/International/004.htm