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Antibacterials - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Antibacterials. By: Alexandre Apfel and Tudor Gradinariu with additions by Ms. S. Smith. Overview: Bio-agents. Two main types Bacteria Living microorganisms that invade the body and cause infection. Viruses Non-cellular infectious particles that reproduce within a host cell.

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By: AlexandreApfel and Tudor Gradinariu with additions by Ms. S. Smith

Overview bio agents
Overview: Bio-agents

  • Two main types

    • Bacteria

      • Living microorganisms that invade the body and cause infection.

    • Viruses

      • Non-cellular infectious particles that reproduce within a host cell.

Pictures of disease causing bacteria
Pictures of disease-causing bacteria!




Basic penicillin facts
Basic Penicillin Facts

  • Over 50 types of penicillin

  • Either natural or semisynthetic

Penicillin G – Natural

Ampicillin – Semisynthetic

  • Semisynthetics tend to kill bacteria more

  • efficiently than naturals

Development of penicillin d 6 1
Development of Penicillin (D.6.1)

  • 1890s – noticed some fungi killed bacteria

  • Alexander Fleming – 1928

  • Working with staphylococcus aureus

  • Found mold, but no bacteria

  • Concluded penicilliumnotatum, inhibited growth of bacteria, but abandoned further experimentation because it was hardto isolate the mold.

Development of penicillin d 6 1 cont d
Development of Penicillin (D.6.1) cont’d

  • Florey and Chain – 1940

  • Injected mice with deadly bacteria

  • Mouse + penicillin = still alive

  • 1941a policeman with a shaving infection treated favorably

  • 1945 sufficient supply for anyone who needed it

  • Fleming, Florey & Chain received a Nobel Prize in 1945

How penicillin works d 6 2
How Penicillin Works (D.6.2)

  • Bacteria cell walls mainly composed of polysaccharides

  • Cross-links connect the various layers

  • Penicillin interferes with cross-link creation and maintenance

  • Penicillin + Bacteria =

How penicillin works d 6 2 cont d
How Penicillin Works (D.6.2) cont’d

  • Animals do not have cell walls, so penicillin is not harmful to humans/other animals

  • Thus, bactericidal drug

Structure of penicillins d 6 2
Structure of Penicillins(D.6.2)

  • Common structure in all penicillins – 6-aminopenicillanic acid

  • deactivated by stomach acid

  • add a side chain to make it acid-resistant

6-aminopenicillanic acid

Side Chain

Penicillin G

Modifying the side chain d 6 2
Modifying the Side Chain (D.6.2)

  • Bacteria can produce penicillinase, enzyme which deactivates the penicillin\

  • Modifying the side chain increases resistance to enzyme

The possibilities are endless
The Possibilities Are Endless!

  • Cefamandole nafate

  • Cefazolin sodium salt

  • Ceftriaxone disodium salt hemi(heptahydrate)

Broad spectrum antibiotics d 6 2
Broad Spectrum Antibiotics (D.6.2)

  • Effective against many kinds of bacteria

  • Examples:

    • Ampicillin

    • Tetracyclines (Aureomycin & Terramycin)

  • Often kill harmless as well as harmful bacteria, including stomach

  • Used in treatment to relieve any significant discomfort

Narrow spectrum antibiotics d 6 2
Narrow Spectrum Antibiotics (D.6.2)

  • Effective against specific types of bacteria

  • Examples:

    • Most penicillins

  • May be applied after broad spectrum antibiotics to target the particular bacterium

Penicillin overprescription d 6 3
Penicillin Overprescription(D.6.3)

  • Penicillin is usually safe

  • 10% of population is allergic - side effects include fever … rash… shock… death…

  • allergy may develop over time

  • can wipe out harmless/helpful bacteria in digestive tracts, which can be replaced by harmful bacteria

  • can lead to resistances in bacteria from originally vulnerable strains (i.e. gonorrhoea, TB, typhoid)

Penicillin patient compliance d 6 3
Penicillin Patient Compliance (D.6.3)

  • Important to take antibiotics as directed… a full course… so as to not have ‘wasted’ the use of the antibiotic

  • If at all possible, avoid taking antibiotics – unless it is the only course of action

  • What might be a problem with overuse of antibacterial soaps?

Penicillin in animal feed d 6 3
Penicillin in Animal Feed (D.6.3)

  • Used to reduce disease and promote growth in livestock

  • Again, drug-resistant strains develop, which transfer from animals to humans

  • Increased concerns have created a growing “Green” movement for animal products using fewer to no anti-biotics