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A R emedial E nglish G rammar . CHAPTERS. ARTICLES AGREEMENT OF VERB AND SUBJECT CONCORD OF NOUNS, PRONOUNS AND POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES CONFUSION OF ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS DIFFICULTIES WITH COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVES CONFUSION OF PARTICIPLES: ACTIVE & PASSIVE PREPOSITIONS

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Presentation Transcript
chapters
CHAPTERS

ARTICLES

AGREEMENT OF VERB AND SUBJECT

CONCORD OF NOUNS, PRONOUNS AND POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES

CONFUSION OF ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS

DIFFICULTIES WITH COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVES

CONFUSION OF PARTICIPLES: ACTIVE & PASSIVE

PREPOSITIONS

NEGATIVE VERBS

TENSES 1, 2 & 3

THE INFINITIVE

prepositions
PREPOSITIONS
  • THE EXPRESSION OF TIME

Making use of at, on, in, during, by, for

At:

It is used to express for a certain moment or point in time.

The train leaves at 2.45 p.m.

For festivals which mark a point in the year.

We have a holiday at Christmas and at Easter.

prepositions1
PREPOSITIONS

On

For a specific day expressed as

date, e.g. on June 5th

day of the week, e.g. on Friday

a special day in the year with a name of its own, e.g. on Christmas morning

For a specific part of any such day e.g. on Christmas morning, (but on the afternoon/evening of Christmas day) on Wednesday morning, on Friday morning.

prepositions2
PREPOSITIONS

In

Used before words which denote a period of time.

E.g. in the summer, in September, in the year 1948, in the morning, in the dinner-hour, in the summer holidays.

To show a total length of time taken for completion of activity. E.g. in three hours, in two hours, thirty five minutes and twenty seconds.

To state a period at the end of which something will happen. E.g. in a few minutes, in an hour’s time.

prepositions3
PREPOSITIONS

During

To express the idea which continues throughout the whole of a specified period.

E.g. During the war food was rationed.

To express an idea wherein which an event took place within a specified period of time (“in the course of”)

E.g. The house was burgled during the night.

prepositions4
PREPOSITIONS

By

To denote the latest time by which something was or is to be done. It implies it may be done before then but not after.

E.g. You must be home by ten o’ clock.

Applications for the post should be received by April 25th.

Used before the words day and night (same as “during”)

E.g. Some motorists prefer to travel by night.

prepositions5
PREPOSITIONS

For

To show the lapse of time during which something takes place or a state of affairs persists.

E.g. It rained continuously for 20 hours.

We have been waiting for over an hour.

Note:

We stayed a week. (sum total of the time)

We stayed for a week. (time as it goes day by day)

prepositions6
PREPOSITIONS

Additional notes:

1. at, on, in are not used if the noun giving a time is preceded by an adjective.

2. yesterday, today, and tomorrow are also used as adverbs and do not take a preposition.

‘today’ cannot be followed by morning, afternoon, evening.

‘night’ can be used only after tomorrow. Hence ‘yesterday night’ or ‘today night’ is not possible.

prepositions7
PREPOSITIONS

B. THE EXPRESSION OF PLACE

Place of Residence:

(a) In is used for a general reference to the place

E.g. in the town, in the desert

(b) In is used for the names of countries, continents, capital cities of large towns

In Paris, in China, in Delhi

(c) At is used for villages and smaller towns

at Aluva, at Marampally

prepositions8
PREPOSITIONS

THE EXPRESSION OF PLACE

Place of Residence:

  • In is used when no specific type of residence is mentioned

E.g. in a cottage, in a flat

(b) At is used for a particular place of residence

E.g. at Manor house, at Buckingham palace

(c) In is used for names of streets and roads

E.g. in Palace road, in Dalal street

prepositions9
PREPOSITIONS

THE EXPRESSION OF PLACE

Place of Work

  • In is used if it is a building

E.g. in a factory, in a bank

  • At is used if the reference is to particular place

E.g. at the public library, at BARC

  • In is used for a particular room or department

E.g. in the Manuscripts department, in the auditing department.

prepositions10
PREPOSITIONS

THE EXPRESSION OF PLACE

Chief Exceptions:

At the seaside, on an island (place of residence)

On a farm, on the railway, on an estate, on a rubber plantation (place of work with no reference to a building)

prepositions11
PREPOSITIONS

PREPOSITIONS ATTACHED TO VERBS

Many intransitive verbs are followed prepositions and its objects. It is incorrect to make statements like:

He pointed the tree

We listened the music

I am looking a book

prepositions12
PREPOSITIONS

PREPOSITIONS ATTACHED TO VERBS

Combinations of v+prep

E.g. agree to, apply to, care for, hope for, object to, rely on, depends on, stared at, succeed in, talks of, think of, think about, write to etc.

prepositions13
PREPOSITIONS

PREPOSITIONS ATTACHED TO VERBS

In interrogative forms beginning with what, who, when, which etc prepositions should be put at the end of the sentences

What are you looking at?

Where has this bus come from?

Whom do you wish to speak to?