The adult in society Chapter 7
Shakespeare • All the world’s a stage • And all the men and women merely players: • They have their exits and their entrances; • And one man in his time plays many parts. • ----As You Like It, Act 2, Scene 7
As you like it • This famous passage from Bill Shakespeare’s play As You Like It illustrates a key concept in sociological theory. Sociologists view an individual’s life as a series of roles. Adulthood is a period of taking on several new roles—college student, employee, spouse, parent and finally senior citizens. But people do not instinctively know the rules of a new roles. They must learn these rules from other through the process of socialization.
Early and middle adulthood • Life patterns are certainly different for men and women • 69% of women who have children under 18 work part-time • Women enter the work force, take time to have children, then go back • Men on the other hand never really leave the work force
Adult male development • Psychologist Daniel Levinson’s researchof Dev. Stage • Long term study on 40 menages 35-45 • 10 business execs, 10 hourly workers, 10 bio profs, and 10 writers • Levinson and colleagues determined the men’s life structure: combo of statuses, roles, activities, goals, values, beliefs, and life circumstances that make the indiv. • Able to distinguish patterns that appear in all men • 3 major patterns
3 stages of adult male development • Early adulthood • ADULT TRANSITION: ages 17-22 • Leaving home mentally and physically • Going to college/taking on a full time job • Break w/ parents isn’t abrupt
3 stages of adult male development • Early adulthood • ENTER THE ADULT WORLD: ages 23-27 • 2 contradicting goals in this period: • Explore a variety of relationships and career opps. • Expected to become a responsible member of society • Fulfilling dream
3 stages of adult male development • Early adulthood • AGE 30 TRANSITION: ages 28-32 • Time to look back on choices that have been made • Choices made now create stable or unstable foundation for future development • Novice phase: time when men prepare for entry into the adult world • making a place for yourself in the adult world
3 stages of adult male development • Early adulthood • SETTLING DOWN PERIOD: ages 33-39 • “Making it” in the adult world • Work to fulfill dreams est. in previous periods • B.O.O.M. Becoming Ones Own Man • Separating ones self from a mentor: someone who fosters an individuals devel. by believing in the person, sharing the persons dreams, and helping the person achieve those dreams
3 stages of adult male development • Middle adulthood • MIDLIFE TRANSITION: ages 40-44 • Like age 30 transition, another self-examination • Realizing if dreams weren’t met, they probably won’t • Esc. pressure of unattainable dreams is one of the major tasks of the mid life transition • Midlife crisis • Work through it by becoming a mentor
3 stages of adult male development • Late adulthood • LATE ADULT TRANSITION: ages 60-75 • Realization of death becomes more imminent
ADULT FEMALE DEVELOPMENT • Levinson said findings were equally valid for women • Concluded that men and women go through same stages of development • Deal with developmental tasks dif. in each stage • Some ppl argue that the differences bc the developmental process for men & women are different • 3 stages for women
Phase I: Leaving the family • Similar to men, women leaving the home, making a break from parents and developing a life plan • Marriage is more a focus than career • Life plan hinges on on marriage • ^big differences on female and male development
Phase II: Entering the Adult world • Motherhood and a career are a workable combo • Added stress on the woman • 59% of women return to work before their child is 1 • Women can’t advance in work if they’re out long • The break in working is another dif. from men
Phase III: entering the adult world again • Similar to what men experience in their 20’s • Women develop a commitment to their careers at a time when their husbands are beginning to have serious doubts about their own careers • Full-time exec. and admin. positions for women is ^^ • 1/3 of all working couples the woman earns more $
What I expect from my future career • As you enter the class, sit down and take out a sheet of paper. • Think about “What you expect from your future” • Take 5 minutes and think about the career you hope to have in the next 10 years. • Within that career, create a list of goals you hope to obtain or achieve • Actor: winning an Emmy • Musician: winning a Grammy • Writer: Pulitzer prize winner
7.2 The world of work • If you start working at 18 and retire at 65, you will have spent 47 years of your life in the work force • What will work life be like? • Labor force • Types of jobs we hold • Degree of job satisfaction • ^^these will help answer that question
Labor force • Labor force: all ind. age 16 & older who are employed in paid positions or who are seeking paid positions • 2000: ~67% of the U.S. was in the labor force • COMPOSITION • The comp. of workers is changing: more women now • 1970: 38% 2010: ~50% professional jobs • Profession: high-status occu. That requires specialized skills obtained through formal edu. • Rise in minority workers • Hispanics: fastest growing working pop. In U.S.
Labor force • UNEMPLOYMENT (UnE) • Unemployment: sit. When a person does not have a job BUT actively seeking • “ “ rate: % of labor force UnE BUT seeking work • UnE varies with age, gender race, cultural background • M: 4.8%, F:4.7% • White: 4.2, AA: 8.7, His: 6.6 • Age 20-24: 8.3, 25-44: 4.1, 45-64: 3.1
Changing nature of work • 1900: much more farming and manufacturing • Mid Cent: manufacturing dominated the labor force • Current: farm/manu=27%, considerable growth w/ professionals (73%) • Managerial/Admin support • The computer has contributed to much of the growth
Women have increased as a percentage of the total labor force; now hold about ½ of all professional jobs • Farming and Manufacturing fell form 85% of U.S. labor force in 1900 to 27% in 2000; most work now is in professional office work, sales, and service jobs • Changes in the Nature of Work and the Labor Force • Education worker’s education level has increased; about 90% of workers aged 25 to 64 have high school diplomas; about 1/3 have college degrees • Minorities have increased as a percentage of the total labor force; in particular Hispanics, who are the fastest growing group of workers
Job satisfaction • Generally, people are satisfied with their jobs • Depends on income and age • ^$=greater satisfaction, ^age=greater satisfaction • Also depends on control over work, use of skill, and those who receive recognition • Others say; workplace safety, co-workers, flexible hours, and job security
Story boarding • A storyboard is a sketch of how to organize a story and a list of its contents • A storyboard helps you: • Define parameters of a story within available time • Organize and focus a story • Figure out what medium to use for each part of the story
groups • Marcelo, Giordana, Iman 11. David, Ruvi, Aaron, Kency • Jazmin, Christina, Dazmen 12. Asia, Isis, Evelina • Keke, Nelson, Shavon • Dakisha, Antwanesha, Ellis • Chatherine, Ashley, Kemric • Tia, Olivia, John • Kevin, Sylvia, Dan, Lametrius • Cristian, Megan, Precious • Gabby, Alex, Dillan • Angel, Giselle, Kelli
Storyboarding • Your task it to join your two/three other group members • Take a sheet of parchment paper and drawing materials • You will then create your own storyboard demonstrating how the nature of work has changed in the U.S. from 1900-Present day • Use the book Chp.7 pg 157 if you need more help • I will give each of you graph showing predictions of the job market into the year 2020 • You will add an additional 1-2 images showing this future projection
Underneath each picture you will write a quick caption of what is going on within your imagery
Storyboarding • Must have at least 6 boxes with 6 descriptions including the information gone over in class or within the text book • Remember 1-2 must be future projection drawings • All members must participate in drawing/writing • Must use color • Drawings must be large enough to see from back of classroom
Ticket out the door • On a piece of paper write me a paragraph describing what you learned about the change in labor from 1900 to present day • Or • What you think will happen based on the graph I gave you within the next 8 years
7.3 The later years • What are the characteristics of life during late adulthood? • What new challenges do older Americans face? • As health care continues to improve, the older population is growing rapidly • 12% in 2000, possibly 20% in 2030 (65 and older) • Gerontology: study of the process/phenomena of aging • Social G: study of the nonphysical aspects of the aging process
Change continues • BC we are living longer, there are major differences between 65 and 85 • Group them into 3 categories • Young-old: 65-74, adjusting to retirement • Middle-old: 75-84 and old-old: 85+ are more concerned with physical well being • Mental as well as physical
Adjustment to retirement • Studies finding, not as stressful as generally assumed • How could it be? • Ppl who strongly identify with their jobs • Those who were happy with work usually translates to retirement and vise versa • $ and Health also contribute • Remaining active in community/social life helps BIG • Failure to adapt=negative consequences • High suicide rates in white males 65+…why?
Physical/mental functioning • The older we get the more we slow down • Muscles and nerves • Hair whitens, muscles shrink, lose weight • HOWEVER, we attain most our intellectual abilities • Old studies/new studies • Intelligence, learning, and memory do decline • Not as great as we once thought • Some skills increase; vocabulary • Alzheimer’s disease: organic condition that results in progressive deterioration of brain cells
Dealing with dependency and death • Dependency: relying on others for financial and physical assistance • Remember, being dependent is very important • Parent/child reversal roles • Death don’t scurr me • Older people are comfortable with death, why? • Middle-aged people fear it much more…why?