Serologi Forensik. Farmasi Forensik Mayagustina Andarini. Mayagustina Andarini, (Dra, Apt, M.Sc). Sarjana : Fakultas Farmasi UGM Apoteker : Fakultas Farmasi UGM M.Sc : Div.Molecular Toxicology, Department of Pharmacochemistry, Faculty of Science, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
Sarjana : Fakultas Farmasi UGM
Apoteker : Fakultas Farmasi UGM
M.Sc : Div.Molecular Toxicology, Department of Pharmacochemistry, Faculty of Science, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
Badan POM RI
Serology is the scientific study of blood serum.
In practice, the term usually refers to the diagnostic identification of antibodies in the serum.
Such antibodies are typically formed in response to :
1. an infection (against a given microorganism),
2. against other foreign proteins (in
response, for example, to a mismatched
3. or to one's own proteins (in instances of
a multidisciplinary subject used for examining crime scenes and gathering evidence to be used in prosecution of offenders in a court of law.
Forensic science techniques are also used to examine compliance with international agreements regarding weapons of mass destruction.
The main areas used in forensic science are biology, chemistry, and medicine, although the science also includes the use of physics, computer science, geology, and psychology.
Forensic scientists examine objects, substances (including blood or drug samples), chemicals (paints, explosives, toxins), tissue traces (hair, skin), or impressions (fingerprints or tidemarks) left at the crime scene.
The majority of forensic scientists specialize in one area of science.
Untuk menentukan tipe dan karakterisasi darah, tes darah, uji pewarnaan darah, dan penyiapan tanda bukti.
Analisis semen, saliva atau cairan tubuh lainnya, baik yang melibatkan tipe DNA atau tidak.
Blood is the most common, well-known, and perhaps most important evidence in the world of criminal justice today.
There's no substitute for it, whether for medical or forensic purposes.
Its presence always links suspect and victim to one another and the scene of violence.
Bloodstain patterns tell a lot about position and movement during the crime, who struck whom first, in what manner, and how many times.
This destroys most alibi and self-defense arguments for crime, and at the very least, trips most suspects up in their explanation of what happened.
Over the years, criminals have tried many ingenious ways to hide, clean up, and remove blood evidence, but it's an area where criminal justice technology has always stayed one step ahead of them.
Slightly Alkaline fluid: water, cells, enzymes, proteins, and inorganic substances that circulate throughout the vascular system carrying nourishment and transporting oxygen and waste.
The most fluid portion plasma, (water,and serum)
yellowish and contains white cells and platelets.
The most non-fluid portion red cells
Medical scientists white cells
Forensic scientists red cells and secondly with serum.
Serum determine the freshness of a blood sample because serum clots several minutes after exposure to air (a centrifuge is necessary to separate clotted material from the rest of serum).
In serum are also found antibodies, which have important forensic implications. With red cells, the analyst looks for smaller substances residing on their surfaces, such as antigens, which have important forensic implications.
One might even say that forensic serology is all about antigens and antibodies, but that is the domain of immunology.
Pada hukum forensik, darah sbg kekuatan barang bukti:
Antigen: struktur kimia yg melekat
pd permukaan sel darah merah
Antibodi: protein yang mengambang pada cairan
Prinsip dasar serologi:
Setiap ada antigen, akan terbentuk antibodi yang spesifik
Golongan Darah :
Antigen pada sel darah merahnya dan ada antibodi terhadap antigen tersebut di dalam serumnya.
A blood type (also called a blood group) is a classification of blood based on the presence or absence of inheritedantigenic substances on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs). These antigens may be proteins, carbohydrates, glycoproteins, or glycolipids, depending on the blood group system. Some of these antigens are also present on the surface of other types of cells of various tissues. Several of these red blood cell surface antigens that stem from one allele (or very closely linked genes), collectively form a blood group system.
The A and B alleles code for enzymes that produce the type A and B antigens respectively. A third version of this gene, the O allele, codes for a protein that is not functional and does not produce surface molecules. Two copies of the gene are inherited, one from each parent. The possible combinations of alleles produce blood types in the following way:
Blood Types and the Population
O positive is the most common blood type. Not all ethnic groups have the same mix ofthese blood types.
Hispanic people, for example, have a relatively high number of O’s, while Asian people have a relatively high number of B’s.
Rh Blood Types
Human fetus in a mother's uterus(the umbilical cord and placentaconnect the fetus to its mother)
Only the Rh+ children (Dd) are likely to have medical complications. When both the mother and her fetus are Rh- (dd), the birth will be normal.
Rh antibodies are harmless until the mother's second or later pregnancies. If she is ever carrying another Rh-positive child, her Rh antibodies will recognize the Rh proteins on the surface of the baby's blood cells as foreign, and pass into the baby's bloodstream and attack those cells. This can lead to swelling and rupture of the baby's RBCs. A baby's blood count can get dangerously low when this condition, known as hemolytic or Rh diseaseof the newborn, occurs
If a father's Rh factor genes are + +, and the mother's are - -, the baby will have one + from the father and one - gene from the mother. The baby will be + - Rh positive.
If a father's Rh factor genes are + +, and the mother's are + +, the baby will have one + from the father and one + gene from the mother. The baby will be + + Rh positive.
If the father's genes are + - Rh positive, and the mother's are + - Rh positive, the baby can be:
+ + Rh positive
+ - Rh positive
- - Rh negative
If the father's genes are - -, and the mother's are + -, the baby can be:
+ - Rh positive
- - Rh negative
If the father's genes are - -, and the mother's are - -, the baby will be: - - Rh negative
Why is Rh disease a concern?
When an Rh negative mother has a baby that is Rh positive, problems can develop if the baby's red blood cells cross to the Rh negative mother. This usually happens at delivery when the placenta detaches. It may also happen, however, anytime blood cells of the two circulations mix such as during a miscarriage or abortion, with a fall, or during an invasive prenatal testing procedure such as an amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling.
The mother's immune system sees the baby's Rh positive red blood cells as foreign. Just as when bacteria invade the body, the immune system responds by developing antibodies to fight and destroy these foreign cells. The mother's immune system keeps the antibodies in case the foreign cells appear again, even in a future pregnancy. The mother is now Rh sensitized.
Although it is not as common, a similar problem of incompatibility may happen between the blood types (A, B, O, AB) of the mother and baby in the following situations:
Mother's Blood Type O A B Baby's Blood Type A or B B A In a first pregnancy, Rh sensitization is not likely. Usually it only becomes a problem in a future pregnancy with another Rh positive baby. During that pregnancy, the mother's antibodies cross the placenta to fight the Rh positive cells in the baby's body. As the antibodies destroy the red blood cells, the baby can become anemic. The anemia can lead to other complications including jaundice and organ enlargement.
Rh disease is also called erythroblastosisfetalis during pregnancy. In the newborn, the resulting condition is called hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN).
Some of the more common complications of Rh disease for the fetus and newborn baby include the following:
anemia (in some cases, the anemia is severe with enlargement of the liver and spleen)jaundice - yellowing of the skin, eyes, and mucous membranes.severe anemia with enlargement of the liver and spleenhydropsfetalis - this occurs as the fetal organs are unable to handle the anemia. The heart begins to fail and large amounts of fluid build up in the fetal tissues and organs. A fetus with hydropsfetalis is at great risk of being stillborn.
After birth, the red blood cell destruction may continue. Problems may include the following:
severe jaundiceThe baby's liver is unable to handle the large amount of a substance called bilirubin that results from red blood cell. breakdown. The baby's liver is enlarged and anemia continues.
kernicterusThe most severe form of too much bilirubin and results from the build up of bilirubin in the brain. This can cause seizures, brain damage, deafness, and death
The frequency of Rh factor blood types and the RhD neg allele gene differs in various populations.
Population data for the Rh D factor and the RhD neg allele[