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Van der Waals Forces
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  1. Van der Waals Forces Johannes Diderik van der Waals

  2. Polarity Separation of charge An asymmetrical difference in electronegativity along a bond or in a molecule

  3. Cl Al O N Cl H H H Cl H H Cl S O C O Cl C Cl H H Cl Circle the polar molecules. Label d+ and d- Cl – Ca – Cl d- d- d+ d- d+ d+

  4. Non-Polar 104.5o C. __________ molecules are symmetrical  D. What is the bond angle in H2O? _______  E. The motion of particles in these phases: Solid Liquid Gas http://itl.chem.ufl.edu/2045_s00/lectures/FG11_001.GIF

  5. Van der Waals Forces Small, weak interactions between molecules

  6. Van der Waals Forces Intermolecular: between molecules (not a bond) Intramolecular: bonds within molecules (stronger) Covalent Bonds IMF

  7. What is being attracted? d+ attracted to d-  electrostatic attraction e- s of one atom to another atom’s nucleus e- + + e-

  8. O O O O O O O O O O O O C C C C C C C C C C C C O O O O O O O O O O O O Evidence of VDW Forces? Non-polar molecules can form gases, liquids and solids. Ex: CO2

  9. Hydrogen Bonding STRONGEST Intermolecular Force!! A special type of dipole-dipole attraction Bonds form due to the polarity of water Draw 4 H2O molecules in your notes Covalent Bonds Ice Liquid

  10. Hydrogen Bonding con’t Hydrogen bonds keep water in the liquid phase over a wider range of temperatures than is found for any other molecule of its size

  11. Hydrogen bonds account for the high boiling point of water

  12. Expansion of Ice Ice expands when water freezes compared to most substances that contract when freezing Ice bomb video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=erlZb8QiPkg

  13. Density vs Temperature of H2O 3.98 oC—max density of water – liquid! Solid Ice Liquid water

  14. Hexagonal Ice http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/chemical/imgche/waterhex.gif http://www.gala-instrumente.de/images/44%20hexagonal%20ice.jpg

  15. http://www.lummox.net/celestial/pics/ak1999-sundog.jpg Halos, Sundogs, & Pillars are caused by hexagonal ice crystals http://images.usatoday.com/tech/_photos/2006/09/12/cloud.jpg

  16. Ponds Freezing Solid water (ice) has a lower density than liquid water

  17. Why is this good? Ice Ponds freeze from the top down, insulating the water below and keeping it from freezing solid. Without this, ponds would freeze solid and thaw more slowly

  18. Lab Surface Tension: Capillary Rise:

  19. Surface Tension Enhancement of the intermolecular attractive forces at the surface

  20. Evidence Lab: Dixie cup Penny Capillary tube needle http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vajL48mwsCA

  21. What causes surface tension? The cohesive forces between molecules are shared with all neighboring atoms. Since the surface has no neighboring atoms above, they exhibit stronger attractive forces for their neighbors next to and below them

  22. How many drops can you get on a penny? Water? TTE? Why is there a difference??? Water has strong Hydrogen Bonds and TTE has weaker intermolecular forces http://www.msnucleus.org/membership/html/k-6/wc/water/1/images/penny.jpg

  23. How is surface tension affected by soap? Breaks the surface tension! http://www.chemistryland.com/CHM107/Water/SoapDisruptsWater.jpg http://www.chemistry.nus.edu.sg/2500/micelle.jpg

  24. Capillary Rise Water rises up the capillary tube because there are unbalanced forces between the water and glass and the water and gravity glass gravity H2O Hg

  25. Which is larger? Adhesion or Cohesion? Adhesion: attraction between H2O (Hg) & glass Cohesion: attraction of H2O (Hg) molec. to each other Adhesion > Cohesion Cohesion > Adhesion

  26. Do other liquids exhibit capillary rise? As long as they are attracted to glass and have enough cohesion

  27. IM forces and interactions between liquids and surfaces Cohesion > Adhesion Liquid “Beads” on Surface Cohesion < Adhesion Liquid “Wets” the Surface

  28. 3 Types of Van der Waals Forces 1)dipole-dipole 2)dipole-induced dipole 3) dispersion

  29. Dipole-Dipole Two polar molecules align so that d+ and d- are matched (electrostatic attraction) Ex: ethane (C2H6) vs. fluromethane (CH3F)

  30. Fluoromethane (CH3F) – boiling point = 194.7 K H H H H H C C H H C C H H H H H Dipole-Dipole NOT Dipole-Dipole d- d+ d+ d- polar or non-polar? H H H C F H C F H H Ethane (C2H6) – boiling point = 184.5 K polar or non-polar?

  31. Br Br K K Try This: Draw two KBr molecules and draw their dipole-dipole interactions with a dashed line.

  32. What does to “induce” mean? • To cause or bring about Ex: Induced vomiting Induced labor Induced coma

  33. Dipole-Induced Dipole A dipole caninduce (cause) a temporary dipole to form in a non-polar molecule The molecules then line up to match d+ and d- charges

  34. Cl d+ d- H Example e- e- e- e- Ar e- e- d- d+ e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- INDUCED DIPOLE non-polar A DIPOLE (it’s polar) Dipole – Induced Dipole (weak and short-lived)

  35. O H H O O C C O O Draw CO2 (aq) What does (aq) mean? dissolved in WATER So…draw CO2 (g) in H2O (l) d+ d- d+ d- d+ d-

  36. Where is CO2 (aq) seen? Carbonated water CO2 is not very soluble… 1 CO2 in 1000 H2O molecules http://www.packaging-technology.com/contractor_images/venus/4_rinser.jpg

  37. Dispersion Forces A temporary dipole forms in a non-polarmolecule… which leads to… a temporary dipole to form in ANOTHERnon-polar molecule Dispersion is the ONLY intermolecular attraction that occurs between non-polar molecules

  38. d- d+ d+ d- Dispersion Forces e- e- e- e- e- e- Cl-Cl e- e- Cl-Cl e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- INDUCED DIPOLE TEMPORARY DIPOLE non-polar non-polar Dispersion (weakest and very short-lived)

  39. Tokay Gecko:Dispersion Forces! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tq8Yw19bn7Q&feature=related

  40. Review Dipole – Dipole between two polar molecules Dipole – Induced Dipole b/w a polar & a non-polar molecule Dispersion between two non-polar molecules

  41. Evaporation Diagram the distribution of kinetic energy at a temperature 5oC 25oC 75oC # particles low KE ave KE high KE

  42. Which molecules will evaporate? This lowers the total kinetic energy (temperature) of the entire system Only high energy molecules can vaporize # particles low KE ave KE high KE

  43. Pvap Pvap P atm P atm P atm Pvap t = 0 min t = 5 min BOILING! t = 1 min Boiling Pvap= Patm

  44. Boiling Pvap P atm P atm P atm Pvap BOILING! Pvap Pvap= Patm

  45. Boiling Boiling occurs when Vapor Pressure = Barometric Pressure When Vapor Pressure = 760 mmHg, Boiling Point = 100oC

  46. Evaporation Questions • Why do we sweat? breaking water’s bonds has a cooling effect high energy molecules are lost

  47. 2. Why does water stay cool in clay containers? Since clay is porous, high energy molecules escape leaving lower temperature water When the water added to the sand evaporates in the Pot-in-Pot Cooler, it pulls heat from the smaller pot, keeping vegetables cool. Refrigeration for the other 90% http://www.juneauempire.com/images/050406/13484_500.jpg http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=11032381&sc=emaf http://www.juneauempire.com/images/050406/13484_500.jpg

  48. jiibindaa

  49. 2. Why does water stay cool in clay containers? Since clay is porous, high energy molecules escape leaving lower temperature water Refrigeration for the other 90% http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=11032381&sc=emaf

  50. 3. Why can liquid water change to vapor at room temperature? High energy molecules escape Evaporation occurs at all temperatures