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789 Lt R Hampton Gray VC Squadron Ground School (2014). Module One: Airframes. In This Module:. 1.1 Aircraft Components. 1.2 Control Systems and Materials. 1.3 Aircraft Classes and Categories. 1.1: Aircraft Components. The Airplane.

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789 Lt R Hampton Gray VC Squadron Ground School (2014)


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    1. 789 Lt R Hampton Gray VC Squadron Ground School (2014) Module One: Airframes

    2. In This Module: 1.1 Aircraft Components 1.2 Control Systems and Materials 1.3 Aircraft Classes and Categories 789 Lt. R Hampton Gray VC Squadron Ground School 2014

    3. 1.1: Aircraft Components

    4. The Airplane The Canadian Aviation Regulations define an airplane as: “A power driven, heavier than air aircraft deriving its lift in flight from aerodynamic reactions on surfaces that remain fixed under given conditions of flight.” Airplane and Aeroplane are the same thing. 789 Lt. R Hampton Gray VC Squadron Ground School 2014

    5. The Airplane Airplanes can be classified by: • Position of the wings relative to the fuselage. • Number of engines. • Undercarriage configuration. High wing, single engine, conventional landing gear. High wing, multi-engine, tricycle landing gear. Low wing, single engine, tricycle landing gear. High wing, single engine, sea plane. 789 Lt. R Hampton Gray VC Squadron Ground School 2014

    6. Parts of an Airplane The essential components of an airplane are: 1) The fuselage or body. 3 2) The wings or lifting surfaces. 1 4 3) The tail section (empennage) or canard. 4) The propulsion system (i.e. engines) with or without propellers. 5 5) The undercarriage or landing gear. 2 789 Lt. R Hampton Gray VC Squadron Ground School 2014

    7. Concept Check 1) What are the key aspects that go into the Canadian Aviation Regulations’ definition of an airplane? 2) What are some ways that airplanes can be classified?. 3) What are the five essential components of an airplane? 789 Lt. R Hampton Gray VC Squadron Ground School 2014

    8. The Fuselage The fuselage is the main body of the aircraft. It accommodates the crew, cargo, and passengers. It is also the structure to which the wings, tail, undercarriage, and engine are attached to. Types of fuselage construction: • Truss • Semi-Monocoque • Monocoque 789 Lt. R Hampton Gray VC Squadron Ground School 2014

    9. Truss Type Fuselage A truss type fuselage is constructed of steel tubes, bolted or welded together. The longerons are the principal members, and they are braced by vertical or diagonal members to form the frame. The frame is then covered in a skin of metal, fabric, or composite. Example of a Warren Truss style of construction. N-Girder is another type. 789 Lt. R Hampton Gray VC Squadron Ground School 2014

    10. Semi-Monocoque Fuselage A semi-monocoque fuselage is constructed of a series of round or oval formers or bulkheads, held together by stringers running along the length. The formers or bulkheads carry the load. In some cases the skin can also absorb some of the load (stressed-skin). 789 Lt. R Hampton Gray VC Squadron Ground School 2014

    11. Monocoque Fuselage A true monocoque fuselage has no stiffeners and all of the load is carried by the skin itself. Some composite bodied small aircraft use a near true-monocoque design with very few stiffeners added. 789 Lt. R Hampton Gray VC Squadron Ground School 2014

    12. Concept Check 1) What is the function of the fuselage? 2) Describe a truss-type fuselage. 3) Describe a semi-monocoque fuselage. 4) Describe a monocoque fuselage. 789 Lt. R Hampton Gray VC Squadron Ground School 2014

    13. The Wing Monoplane Bi-Plane Monoplanes (one pair of wings) are by far the most common type today. 789 Lt. R Hampton Gray VC Squadron Ground School 2014

    14. Wing Positions HIGH WING LOW WING MID-WING 789 Lt. R Hampton Gray VC Squadron Ground School 2014

    15. Wing Construction 789 Lt. R Hampton Gray VC Squadron Ground School 2014

    16. Concept Check 1) What type of wing configuration is more common? Monoplane or biplane? 2) What are the three wing positions? 3) What is the main wing member that carries most of the load? 4) What wing member gives the airfoil its shape? 789 Lt. R Hampton Gray VC Squadron Ground School 2014

    17. Empennage 789 Lt. R Hampton Gray VC Squadron Ground School 2014

    18. Canard Configuration 789 Lt. R Hampton Gray VC Squadron Ground School 2014

    19. Concept Check 1) What are the five main components of the empennage or tail section? 2) Describe a canard configuration. 789 Lt. R Hampton Gray VC Squadron Ground School 2014

    20. Propulsion System • Cowling: • Encloses the engine. • Streamlines the front end. • Provides cooling by ducting air around the engine. • Engine Mount: • Supports the engine. • Made of steel tubing. • Kept flexible to absorb vibration, often using bushings. • Firewall: • Made of a heavy sheet of stainless steel or a sandwich of asbestos between two sheets of dural. • Fuel tank is behind firewall to protect it from ignition. 789 Lt. R Hampton Gray VC Squadron Ground School 2014

    21. Propulsion System 789 Lt. R Hampton Gray VC Squadron Ground School 2014

    22. Propulsion System 789 Lt. R Hampton Gray VC Squadron Ground School 2014

    23. Concept Check 1) What does the engine cowling do? 2) Why is the engine mount kept flexible? 3) What is the purpose of the firewall? 789 Lt. R Hampton Gray VC Squadron Ground School 2014

    24. Landing Gear / Undercarriage • Purpose of Landing Gear: • Absorb the shock of landing. • Support the aircraft on the ground. • Enable the aircraft to manoeuvre on the ground. 789 Lt. R Hampton Gray VC Squadron Ground School 2014

    25. Fixed Gear Tripod Landing Gear: • Made up of three members. Two rigid and one shock absorbing. Spreads outward when under load. Split Axle Gear: • Gear axle is split in the middle to allow it to clear obstructions. Spreads outward when under load. Single Leaf Cantilever Spring Steel Gear: • Single piece of spring steel bent to form the main gear assembly. Flexibility allows it to spread outward under load. Single Strut Gear: • Single vertical strut pointing downward from its mounting point. Uses either rubber biscuits or a hydraulic cylinder to absorb shock. 789 Lt. R Hampton Gray VC Squadron Ground School 2014

    26. Fixed Gear Tripod Single Leaf Cantilever Spring Steel Single Strut Split Axle 789 Lt. R Hampton Gray VC Squadron Ground School 2014

    27. Retractable Gear • Allows the landing gear to fold into the aircraft (either into the wing or the fuselage). • Provides better aerodynamic streamlining. • Generally motorized and may provide a hand crank for emergency deployment of the gear. • Generally uses a single strut design with a shock absorber. 789 Lt. R Hampton Gray VC Squadron Ground School 2014

    28. Concept Check 1) What are the four main types of fixed landing gear? 2) What it the main benefit of a retractable landing gear? 789 Lt. R Hampton Gray VC Squadron Ground School 2014

    29. Shock Absorbers The purpose of shock absorbers in a landing gear system are to prevent landing shock damage to the aircraft by absorbing the stresses of landing. Four general classes of shock absorber: • Low Pressure Tires • Oleos • Rubber • Spring Steel 789 Lt. R Hampton Gray VC Squadron Ground School 2014

    30. Shock Absorbers Low Pressure Tires: • Sometimes the sole means of shock absorption on small light airplanes. • Energy is not dissipated, but stored and kicked back up. Oleos: • System of cylinders in which oil (incompressible fluid) is forced from one section to another through a small hole. • Energy is not kicked back into the aircraft. • Absorbs shock of landing only. 789 Lt. R Hampton Gray VC Squadron Ground School 2014

    31. Shock Absorbers Rubber: • Generally used in conjunction with other shock absorbing methods like oleos. • Most common type used are rubber discs and shock cord. Spring Steel: • Spring steel landing gears are shock absorbers in and of themselves. • The spring steel is flexible, and spreads out upon landing absorbing energy. 789 Lt. R Hampton Gray VC Squadron Ground School 2014

    32. Brakes Provide deceleration for aircraft, especially important for high speed aircraft. Differential (individually operated) brakes provide great ground manoeuvrability and assist with steering and minimizing ground looping tendencies. 789 Lt. R Hampton Gray VC Squadron Ground School 2014

    33. Concept Check 1) What are the four main types of shock absorber? 2) By what mechanism does an oleo strut absorb shock? 3) What are the two purposes of brakes on an aircraft? 789 Lt. R Hampton Gray VC Squadron Ground School 2014

    34. Nose Wheel vs. Tail Wheel Nose Wheel / Tricycle Gear Tail Wheel / Conventional Gear 789 Lt. R Hampton Gray VC Squadron Ground School 2014

    35. Nose Wheel Advantages • Nose-over tendencies greatly reduced (nose is supported). • Ground looping tendencies are reduced (steering in front of CoG). • Visibility when taxiing, taking off and landing is increased. • Great ground manoeuvrability under high wing conditions due to negative AoA wing position. • Great controllability in crosswind conditions (better for single runway airports). • Easier for novices to learn to manoeuvre on the ground. 789 Lt. R Hampton Gray VC Squadron Ground School 2014

    36. Tail Wheel Advantages • Tail wheel has less parasitic drag than a nose wheel due to smaller size. • Cheaper and easier to build and maintain. • Broken tail wheel will not result in as much damage as a broken nose wheel (prop strike!) • Can be manoeuvered by hand more easily on the ground and may fit into tighter hangar spaces due to lower tail. • Propeller may sustain less damage when operating on sod, sand, or gravel. • May sustain less damage on rough surface due to main gear sustaining force of impacting divots or bumps. • More suited for ski operations. 789 Lt. R Hampton Gray VC Squadron Ground School 2014

    37. Concept Check 1) Name three advantages of a nose wheel configuration. 2) Name three advantages of a tail wheel configuration. 789 Lt. R Hampton Gray VC Squadron Ground School 2014

    38. 1.2: Control Systems 789 Lt. R Hampton Gray VC Squadron Ground School 2014

    39. Ailerons 789 Lt. R Hampton Gray VC Squadron Ground School 2014

    40. Ailerons • Mounted to outside trailing edge of wing. • Move in opposite directions to each other. • Controlled by control stick or wheel/yoke. • Controls the airplane laterally. • Connected to control stick/wheel by either i) cables and pulleys, ii) push and pull rods, iii) torque tubes. 789 Lt. R Hampton Gray VC Squadron Ground School 2014

    41. Aileron Operation Stick/Wheel Left: Left aileron up (less lift generated), right aileron down (more left generated), airplane banks to the left. Stick/Wheel Right: Right aileron up (less lift generated), left aileron down (more left generated), airplane banks to the right. Banking continues until controls are neutralized. 789 Lt. R Hampton Gray VC Squadron Ground School 2014

    42. Concept Check 1) Explain the function of ailerons. 2) Demonstrate the function of ailerons using FSX. 789 Lt. R Hampton Gray VC Squadron Ground School 2014

    43. Elevators / Stabilators 789 Lt. R Hampton Gray VC Squadron Ground School 2014

    44. Elevators / Stabilators • Elevators are mounted to the trailing edge of the horizontal stabilazers. • Stabilators are single, all-moving pieces. • Move in the same directions as each other. • Controlled by control stick or wheel/yoke. • Controls the airplane longitudinally and the AoA of the wings. • Connected to control stick/wheel by either i) cables and pulleys, ii) rocking beam and cable, iii) push/pull rods. 789 Lt. R Hampton Gray VC Squadron Ground School 2014

    45. Elevator / Stabilator Operation Stick/Wheel Aft: Elevator up, lower/negative lifting force on tail, tail goes down, nose goes up. Stick/Wheel Foreward: Elevator down, increased lifting force on tail, tail goes up, nose goes down. 789 Lt. R Hampton Gray VC Squadron Ground School 2014

    46. Concept Check 1) Explain the difference between elevators and stabilators. 2) Explain the function of elevators / stabilators. 3) Demonstrate the function of elevators / stabilators using FSX. 789 Lt. R Hampton Gray VC Squadron Ground School 2014

    47. Rudder 789 Lt. R Hampton Gray VC Squadron Ground School 2014

    48. Rudder • The rudder(s) is mounted on the trailing edge of the vertical stabilizer. • Controlled by pedals inside the cockpit. • Controls the airplane’s yaw. • Connected pedals generally using a cable system. 789 Lt. R Hampton Gray VC Squadron Ground School 2014

    49. Rudder Operation Press left rudder pedal: rudder moves left into airstream on left side of plane, aerodynamic forces push tail right, nose of airplane moves left. Press right rudder pedal: rudder moves right into airstream on right side of plane, aerodynamic forces push tail left, nose of airplane moves right. 789 Lt. R Hampton Gray VC Squadron Ground School 2014

    50. Concept Check 1) Explain the function of the rudder. 2) Demonstrate the function of the rudder using FSX. 789 Lt. R Hampton Gray VC Squadron Ground School 2014