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Today’s Plan. Naming Type I, Type II, Type III and Type IV Compounds Naming Acids. #’s 37,38,51,53,60,72-74. Type I. Ionic compounds (monatomic cations & anions) Examples – Li 2 O = lithium oxide AlN = ???. Type II. Ionic compounds

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today s plan
Today’s Plan
  • Naming Type I, Type II, Type III and Type IV Compounds
  • Naming Acids

#’s 37,38,51,53,60,72-74

type i
Type I
  • Ionic compounds

(monatomic cations & anions)

  • Examples –
    • Li2O = lithium oxide
    • AlN = ???
type ii
Type II
  • Ionic compounds

(variable charge cations and monatomic anions)

  • Examples –
    • CuCl = copper (I) chloride
    • PbS = ???
type ii variable charge
Type II – Variable Charge
  • Same as Type I and Type IV except you have to indicate what charge the variable charge ion has!
  • For example:
    • FeO = iron (II) oxide (or ferrous oxide)
    • Fe2O3 = iron (III) oxide (or ferric oxide)
    • SnH2 = tin (II) hydride (or stannous hydride)
    • SnBr4 = tin (IV) bromide (or stannic bromide)
type iii
Type III
  • Covalent compounds with only nonmetals

Key… these are not compounds of ions! That is why the rules are so different.

  • Examples –
    • P3O5 = triphosphoruspentoxide
    • SO = ???
some type iii tips
Some TYPE III tips…
  • Never use “mono” at the beginning of the compound name, if there’s only 1 of the first atom no prefix is necessary.
  • If the vowel at the end of the prefix plus the vowel at the start of the element name is awkward, (e.g. mono- and oxide) the vowel on the prefix gets dropped. (monoxide, tetroxide)
name no
Name NO
  • Name 1st element: nitrogen
  • Name 2nd element like an anion: oxide
  • Use prefixes to denote numbers of atoms
    • 1 nitrogen: if only 1 of the first atom, no prefix
    • 1 oxygen: mono-
    • nitrogen monoxide
name bf 3
Name BF3
  • Name the first element using the element name: boron
  • Name the second element as if it were an anion: fluoride (instead of fluorine)
  • Use prefixes to denote numbers of atoms:
    • 1 boron: if only 1 of the first atom, no prefix
    • 3 fluorine: tri-
    • boron trifluoride
type iv
Type IV
  • Ionic compounds

(polyatomic ions–mostly anions)

  • Examples –
    • K2SO4 = potassium sulfate
    • (NH4)2CO3 = ???
two super awesome websites for polyatomic ion practice
Two super awesome websites for polyatomic ion practice!
  • Charge practice: http://www.chemfiles.com/flash/polyions1.html
  • Name/formula practice: http://www.chemfiles.com/flash/polyions.html
  • (Really tough ion/compound practice: http://www.chemfiles.com/flash/polyatomic_ions.html)
acid naming our last type
Acid Naming (our last type!)
  • Acids = molecules that produce H+ ions in water
  • First recognized for the sour taste of their solutions: e.g. citric acid in lemons and limes is responsible for that sour taste
  • An acid is an anion with one or more H+cations bonded to it that it can let go of when dissolved in water.
acid naming rule 1
Acid Naming Rule #1

If the anion does NOT contain oxygen…

HCl

1. Use the prefix hydro- and the suffix –ic after the “root” of the anion:

chloride

hydrochloric acid

How do you know it’s an acid?

more practice acid naming rule 1
More Practice…Acid Naming Rule #1

If the anion does NOT contain oxygen…

HCN

1. Use the prefix hydro- and the suffix –ic after the “root” of the anion:

cyanide

hydrocyanic acid

Is it an acid if it’s not dissolved in water?

remember
Remember…

Acids are ionic compounds beginning with H that dissolve in water to form a solution that we call an acid.

They are not often found/used in their solid form so we prefer to name them as acids in their solution form.

acid naming rule 2
Acid Naming Rule #2

If the anion DOES contain oxygen…

H2SO4

2. Take the root name of the central anion and add a suffix:

-icwhen the anion ends in –ate

-ouswhen anion names in –ite

hydrogen sulfate should be called… …sulfuric acid

acid naming rule 21
Acid Naming Rule #2

If the anion DOES contain oxygen…

HNO2

2. Take the root name of the central anion and add a suffix:

-icwhen the anion ends in –ate

-ouswhen anion names in –ite

hydrogen nitrite should be called… …nitrous acid

acid naming rule 3
Acid Naming Rule #3

If the anion DOES contain oxygen, but isn’t a simple “-ate” or an “-ite”…

perchlorate

chlorate

chlorite

hypochlorite

HClO4

HClO3

HClO2

HClO

perchloricacid

chloric acid

chlorousacid

hypochlorousacid

per - used for anions with one more oxygen than an ‘-ate”

hypo - used for anions with one less oxygen than an ‘-ite”

more practice acid naming rule 3
More Practice…Acid Naming Rule #3

If the anion DOES contain oxygen, but isn’t a simple “-ate” or an “-ite”…

perbromate

bromate

bromite

hypobromite

HBrO4

HBrO3

HBrO2

HBrO

perbromicacid

bromicacid

bromousacid

hypobromousacid

per - used for anions with one more oxygen than an ‘-ate”

hypo - used for anions with one less oxygen than an ‘-ite”

acid naming summary
Acid Naming Summary
  • NO Oxygen
  • Always:

Hydro[anion root]ic

acid

  • CONTAINS Oxygen
  • What is the key anion?
  • How many oxygens does it have compared to the “-ate” or “-ite”?

(prefix)[anion root](suffix)

acid

hydrofluoric acid, hydrosulfuric acid, hydronitric acid

Ex’s: HF, HS, HN

Ex’s: HNO3,HNO2,HNO, HNO4

nitric acid, nitrous acid, hyponitrous acid, pernitric acid

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