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The issue of loop flows Aleksandra Gawlikowska-Fyk. Berlin, 4 December 2012. Main power flows in Europe. Source: ENTSO-E Ten-Year Network Developemnt Plan 2012. What are loop flows. Loop flows / unplanned power flows / unannounced power flows

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main power flows in europe
Main powerflows in Europe

Source: ENTSO-E Ten-Year Network Developemnt Plan 2012

what are loop flows
What are loop flows

Loop flows / unplanned power flows / unannounced power flows

  • physical phenomena that occurs when generation and load centers diverge thus resulting in differences between commercial schedules and physical flows.

Unplanned power flows result from:

  • internal transactions between Northern (supply of wind generation) and Southern Germany (demand) but also
  • exchanges within a common market area of Germany and Austria

There are no explicit limits to these flows even if they are heavily using the networks of the neighbors.

physical and commercial power flows


Export: 303.3 GWh

Import: 1467.0 GWh

Out: 277.5 GWh

In: 1513.6 GWh


Export: 7233.6 GWh

Import: 1983.5 GWh

Export: 0.0 GWh

Import: 59.6 GWh

Out: 0.0 GWh

In: 59.6 GWh

Export: 2609.9 GWh

Import: 195.3 GWh

Out: 432.1 GWh

In: 5135.6 GWh


Export: 3035.9 GWh

Import: 224.4 GWh

Out: 8261.5 GWh

In: 44.0 GWh

Export: 1284.5 GWh

Import: 37.2 GWh

Out: 3051.6 GWh

In: 26.6 GWh

Czech Republic


Physical and commercial power flows

Source: Polish Energy Regulatory Office

winter 2011 2012 critical
Winter 2011/2012 – critical
  • Problems associated with loop flows increased both in numbers and scale
  • massive renewable energy sources development not corresponding with grid development
  • Energiewende

Source: Position of ČEPS, MAVIR, PSE Operator and SEPS regardingthe issue of


why poland and germany will cooperate
Why Poland and Germany will cooperate

Regulation No 714/2009


Congestion Management Guidelines

  • Point 3.1. capacity allocation at an
  • interconnection shall be coordinated by
  • involved TSOs. If commercial exchanges
  • between two countries affect physical
  • flow in third country – coordination
  • between all affected TSOs.
  • Point 3.2. coordinated congestion management method shall be applied by not later than 1 January 2007 in regions: Central Eastern Europe (Germany, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Austria and Slovenia)


possible solutions
Possible solutions

Many initiatives aiming to address the problem:

  • The European Commission - study
  • ACER
  • BNetzA and Federal Ministry (internal)

Many possible solutions:

  • short-term – better coordination and cooperation between TSOs related to operational security (re-dispatching)
  • mid-term – correct market design (adequate bidding zones)
  • long-term – infrastructure enhancement (interconnectors and internal grids)

Phase Shifters  is it a real solution  Problem Shifters ???

phase shifters in europe
Phase shifters in Europe

Source: PolishEnergy Regulatory Office

what can be done main investment projects of pse operator sa










kV temporary at



DC cable





Pol Power Bridge



Pol Improvements

Wind Integration

Power Evacuation



Power Evacuation



Power Evacuation



Power Evacuation



What can be done: main investment projects of PSE Operator SA

Source: PSE Operator SA

improvements on german polish border
Improvements on German-Polish border
  • Phase shifting transformers:
  • better management of unplanned transits DE-PL-CZ
  • enhancement of transfer capacity on Polish synchronous profile. Expected NTC increase:
    • 500 MW for import and 1500 MW for export
  • greater security and reliability of the regional transmission network in Poland and in other countries of the CEE region
  • increased capability to accommodate more renewable energy resources in a safe and reliable manner
  • Third DE-PL interconnector:
    • strengthening market integration between member states
    • increasing NTC by 1500 MW for import and 500 MW for export on PL-DE/SK/CZ synchronous profile
    • improving network security - project contributes to increase of security of supply and flexibility of the transmission network