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Collapse of the USSR. 1917-1922 Russian Civil War. Communism become the new government form after rule by the tsars since 1631 Soviet Union/USSR emerges Has the US had any other form of government?. Russia Clip. The Creation of the Politburo.

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1917 1922 russian civil war
1917-1922 Russian Civil War
  • Communism become the new government form after rule by the tsars since 1631
  • Soviet Union/USSR emerges
  • Has the US had any other form of government?

Russia Clip

the creation of the politburo
The Creation of the Politburo

The first Politburo was created in Russia in late October of 1917 by the Bolshevik Party Central Committee and was made to supply a strong, continuous, flexible leadership.

The Politburo was an all-Russian communist political party that made political decisions for the Soviet Union.

Although the Politburo only lasted until 1991, it exercised supreme control over the Soviet Government.

1918 march 3 rd treaty of brest litvosk
1918 (March 3rd)-Treaty of Brest-Litvosk
  • Ended Russia’s involvement in World War I. Many people were angry with tsar for entering the war, and this showed that the communists cared for the people.
fall of romanovs
Fall of Romanovs

In 1917 Riots in St. Petersburg continued to grow. It was at that time that Nicholas was forced to give up the thrown for himself and Alexei. This marked the end of Romanov rule of Russia.`

The fall of the Romanovs was the end of Monarchy in Russia.

stalin s 5 year plans 1928 1933 1933 1937

Stalin’s 5 years plans were created to bring the soviet union into the industrialized age. His five year plans caused mass starvation and hundreds of thousands of people died. Anyone who protested his plans was also executed. Overall, while the plans he created did help bring the soviet union into the industrialized age, they caused hundreds of thousands of deaths and hurt more than they helped

Stalin’s 5 year plans(1928-1933, 1933-1937)

slide7

World War 2

Before The War :

USSR signs a non aggression pack with Nazis which divides Eastern Europe

After The War:

USSR becomes leading power with USA

USSR added countries to the soviet union

Tomisha Johnson

slide8

Joe1

Test: "Joe-1"

Time: 07:00 29 August 1949 (local) Location: Semipalatinsk Test Site, Kazakhstan

The whole focus of the Soviet program was to set off a Soviet atomic blast at the earliest possible time whatever the cost. This device was an exact copy of the U.S. Gadget/Fat Man design. This was the first nuclear test ever by the soviet union. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bi0WMV7OPyQ&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1&safe=active

hydrogen bomb

Hydrogen Bomb

Occurred during the space race between the soviets and US in 1950-1956

Edward Teller suggested the idea of a Thermonuclear fission bomb or “hydrogen bomb”

The first bomb was ignited on Nov. 1st of 1952 by the US on the Enewetak Atoll

700 times greater than Hiroshima

Hurt more than helped because they never really utilized it other than testing which is a waste of funds

warsaw pact

Warsaw Pact

The Warsaw Pact was a Military alliance that of communist nations that was organized in 1955. This pact involved Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the Soviet Union. This was good for Russia because it allowed them to have more allies and support.

sputnik
Sputnik
  • The Soviet Union created Sputnik. It was the first artificial Earth Satellite.
  • It helped the military, new technology, political, and scientific developments for the Soviet Union. But it created a lot of anxiety to the United States, because it represented a threat of Soviet space and missile technology.
laikia and sputnik 3 by hughie quinn
Laikiaand Sputnik 3 by hughiequinn
  • Laikia(Sputnik II) launched on 1957.11.03, one month after Sputnik I
  • Proved manned space flights possible
  • Laikia Died by 4th orbit

Sputnik 3 launched on 1958.05.15

  • Was launched for scientific purposes,

Showed that USSR could have ICBM`s

  • It showed that the USSR space

program was further

along than the U.S. space program

slide13

BERLIN WALL

WHAT IS IT?

The Berlin wall is the physical division between West Berlin and Germany for 1961-1989 and the symbolic boundary between democracy and communism during the cold war.

CON’S

The Berlin wall was erected by communist to keep its people in.

WHO? WHY?

  • PRO’S

The Soviet Union created the Berlin wall to stop citizens of the German republic emigrating to west Berlin and from their to The federal republic of Germany

Was build to keep people from fleeing to west Germany were the quality of life is better.

1968 soviet union of czechoslovakia
1968 Soviet Union of Czechoslovakia

Soviet Union invaded Czechoslovakia on August 20, 1968, and killed many people. They did this to crush their Prague Spring political liberalization reforms. The invasion successfully stopped the reform and strengthened the Communist party of Czechoslovakia. This invasion helped the Soviet Union because it delayed the breakage of Eastern European Communism.

cuban missile crisis

CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS

For thirteen days in October 1962 the world waited seemingly on the brink of nuclear war and hoped for a peaceful resolution of the Cuban Missile Crisis.

Relations improved as they realized how close the world had come to nuclear fallout this showed that USSR was a super power but had to reign in like we had

salt 1 und salt 2
SALT 1 und SALT 2

From November 1969-May 1972, SALT (Strategic Arms Limitation Talks) was in affect. The United States and the USSR have agreed to set limitations on Anti-Ballistic Air missile Systems. This was to help end the competition for the most superior defense system which could eventually lead to an offensive competition. The Soviet Union had not kept its side of the bargain with the agreements. Over those years, the USSR made 500 more weapon systems.

soviet afghan war
Soviet-Afghan War!!!

1978-1988, War broke out between Mujahidin(anti-communist party) and Afghanistan and Soviet forces. For a decade long war, Soviets and Afghanistan soldiers fought to bring down this anti-communist party. Mujahidin had the help of the United States, Saudi Arabia and China. Ultimately, the Soviets and Afghanistan lost. The Soviets lost 15,000 people and 37,000 wounded from this war.

It was a huge blow to the Soviets!

gorbachev becomes leader

Gorbachev Becomes Leader

In 1985 Mikhail Gorbachev became the leader of the Soviet Union. Some of the changes he spoke of, are freezing the deployment of weapons and reduce international nuclear weapons stockpiles. He signed a number of agreements with the United States Banning nuclear disarment. He also improved the relations with the west. While eliminating nuclear weapons is a good thing at the same time, the soviet union took a serious downturn. Because of this he established a president. This was bad for the Soviet Union because he ended the communist’s parties monopoly as a political party.

chernobyl disaster

Chernobyl Disaster occurred on April 26, 1986

  • Nuclear reactors 3 and 4 at the plant exploded
  • Immediately 28 deaths were accounted for, but many more weren’t
  • In the few years to follow, 220,000 people were moved to less contaminated sights in Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine
  • This caused a large problem for the evacuation from citizens part of the Soviet Union
  • Construction of a safer containment center is underway now and is scheduled to be done in early 2014.

CHERNOBYL DISASTER

By: Ben Swan

1986 perestroika
1986 Perestroika
  • Gorbachev’s economic, political, and social restructuring plan for the Soviet Union to assist in giving more local governments control over their land (turned out to be a disaster, why?)
1986 glasnost
1986 Glasnost
  • Mikhail Gorbachev introduce the policy of glasnost. This allowed more freedom of the press. Problems of Soviet life were revealed, such as poor housing, food shortages, alcoholism, widespread pollution, creeping mortality rates and the second-rate position of women. The press uncovered the truth about Stalin, Brezhnev, and Cherenko, previously great leaders, were now shown as the true brutal oppressive murders they really were
  • This is significant because these freedoms allowed people to really criticize the gov’t for the first time, showing the gov’t’s weaknesses and spread anti-Soviet ideas to everyday people.
voting reforms destroyed the soviet union
Voting Reforms Destroyed The Soviet Union
  • In 1987, Gorbachev institutes reforms in voting, allowing Soviet citizens to vote for people other than Communist Party members, but the Communist Party of the Soviet Union suffers minimal loss in the elections. This is bad for the communist party because they will not be in power anymore.
1989 june and july free elections in poland czechoslovakia hungary
1989 (June and July) Free Elections in Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary

*After many years of communism oppression, Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Hungary set up elections in which anyone could run and vote, not just communist leaders, showing that the Soviet model was losing its power.

1989 lithuania estonia and latvia protests
1989 Lithuania, Estonia, and Latvia protests

* Two join hands to demand freedom and independence from the USSR, forming an uninterrupted 600 km human chain made up of citizens from Lithuania, Estonia, and Latvia, emphasizing how they do not want to be part of the Soviet Union any longer.

the fall of the berlin wall
TheFall of the Berlin Wall

See slide  Fall of the Berlin Wall

  • The Berlin Wall came down November 9th, 1989.
  • It was been up for 28 years, separating East and West Germany.
  • Represented unity when it came down and East

and West German came

together again.

  • It was bad for USSR

because Germany is a

strong country and it a

threat to the USSR

new sovereign states
New Sovereign States
  • 1991, September 6: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania are independent states
  • 1991, October- December: Ukraine, Armenia, Georgia, Moldova, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Belarus, Ukraine, and Turkmenistan break away
  • Kazakhstan leaves last
1991 december 25 th gorbachev steps down
1991, December 25th Gorbachev steps down
  • After 6 years Gorbachev steps down from being the Russian leader
  • Boris Yeltsin becomes the first elected president leader of Russia
  • Soviet flag on the Kremlin replaced with the Russian Federation Flag.
  • All these show that the USSR ceases to exist, marking a new government for Russia.

USSR Collapse

the russian federation files
The Russian Federation Files

The Russian Federation Files were documents released to the public to prove that Russia’s secrete police massacred 22,000 Polish Officers, citizens and intellectuals in WWII under Joseph Stalin’s rule.

The files were released by President Dmitry Medvedev after the Polish President along with his wife and officials died in a plane crash while traveling to attend a ceremony to commemorate the Katyn Massacre.

This helps the USSR because they are taking responsibility for their actions from the 1940’s because the situation would be a lot worse if they were to deny the event ever happened when most know that they did kill innocent Polish citizens.