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FST 01 Foundation Course in Science & Technology

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  1. FST 01Foundation Course in Science & Technology BCA-3 IGNOU

  2. 6. Information, Knowledge, Insight 1. His tory of Science 7. Science, Technology And Development 2. Emergence of Modern Science 4. Environment And Resources 3. Universe And Life : The Beginnings 5. Agriculture, Nutrition And Health 8. New Perspectives BLOCKS Presentation Title | October 2, 2014 | <document classification>

  3. Session-1 Presentation Title | October 2, 2014 | <document classification>

  4. BLOCK 1 HISTORY OF SCIENCE • UNIT 1. Science as a Human Endeavor • UNIT 2. Science in the Ancient World • UNIT 3. Iron Age • UNIT 4. The Golden Age of Science in India Presentation Title | October 2, 2014 | <document classification>

  5. UNIT 1. Science as a Human Endeavor Presentation Title | October 2, 2014 | <document classification>

  6. INTRODUCTION • Science is a human endeavor. • From prehistoric times human beings have attempted to control nature for their own welfare. • For this, they had to observe and understand nature. • Out of such an understanding, they found the means to make nature yield goods according to their needs. • While this understanding led to useful applications, it also opened up further questions and avenues of enquiry, enriching the stock of knowledge. Presentation Title | October 2, 2014 | <document classification>

  7. And this. in turn, led to improved techniques for satisfying their needs. • This process of understanding nature and using that understanding to control nature may be called "science". • The roots of science lie in the life of primitive human beings. • The transition from a primitive society to an agricultural society had led to the birth of science. Presentation Title | October 2, 2014 | <document classification>

  8. LINKING PAST WITH PRESENT • The history of human civilization shows that the progress of science has not always been steady. • There were tremendous advances in mathematics in India about 2000 years ago, and in medicine about 2500 years ago. But, no comparable developments have taken place here in the last 2000 years. • When sophisticated calculations and observations were being made in India in ancient times, Europe generally was in the primitive stage. Presentation Title | October 2, 2014 | <document classification>

  9. On the other hand, while India was being ruled and exploited by the British, there was a flowering of the industrial Revolution in Europe. • The picture is complex, but we cannot deny that science and human affairs are closely connected and together they give rise to human civilization. • Today, many questions related to life and happiness worry us. All such questions arise because, consciously or unconsciously, we have come to accept science as a part of our lives, and cherish the hope that it will bring us a better life. • While we cherish the hope. we find impediments which either distort the true purpose of science, or divert the fruits of science for a small minority of our people. Presentation Title | October 2, 2014 | <document classification>

  10. Why Search the Past • How do we answer these questions which are of vital interest to us? • One approach is that characterized by the famous statement of Henry Ford, "History is bunk". According to this approach, all the earlier knowledge that is useful is absorbed in the present state of knowledge. What has been left out are only the mistakes. But this approach does not answer the basic questions. • It can be easily seen that none of the questions which arise out of the intimate interaction of science with our lives or with society in general, can be answered without due reference to history of science. • Science is the means by which the whole of our civilization is rapidly being transformed. In the past, science grew steadily and imperceptibly. But now science is progressing by leaps and bounds, for all to see. • In science, more than in any other human institution, it is necessary to search the past in order to understand the present and to control the future Presentation Title | October 2, 2014 | <document classification>

  11. What is History of Science • The history of science is not a chronological description of events of scientific discovery. It is a story of an ongoing process of the interaction of science and society. • It begins in the primitive human society and threads its way through different ages which have seen different forms of society, up to the modern times.(fig1.1) • The history of science is a story of human life. It is a story of human striving in all its failings, frailties and strengths. It is a story of the interaction of science with other forces in society such as economics, politics, psychology, culture and social organization (Fig. 1.2) Presentation Title | October 2, 2014 | <document classification>

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  14. SOME ASPECTS OF SCIENCE • When we look at science today, it appears as an organized and specialized human activity. • This character of science is, however, not more than 300 years old. • In the olden days, a philosopher, an artisan, a priest, or a magician could at the same time be a scientist. • Today, science is a multifaceted activity. It has its own body of knowledge, organization, experts, tasks and methods. Presentation Title | October 2, 2014 | <document classification>

  15. The Institution of Science • The large and diverse scientific activity, which is well organized, gives science the nature of an "institution". • While the influence of science on our daily lives has grown, it has not become easily understandable to most of us. These days. scientists limit themselves more and more to narrow areas of specialized activity. What is more, the specialization is so narrow that often one section of the scientific community fails to understand the other. • Specialisation in science means a deep study of a limited range of questions or phenomena. • Thus, it may help in rapid solution of some problems. However, too narrow a specialisation often leads to loss of broad scientific understanding. • Specialisation also leads to the use of special terms and phrases or what may be called jargon. This prevents common people from understanding science and using it for their benefit in everyday life. Very often it leads to stagnation and decay of scientific activity. Presentation Title | October 2, 2014 | <document classification>

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  17. When we think of science as a social institution, then the objectives of science are, in a general sense, social objectives. The general economic and ideological atmosphere of society determines the broad motivation for scientific activity. • And the specific areas of social life, such as trade or "markets“, industrial development, agriculture, natural resources, health etc., set definite problems for science to solve. • Thus, science. as an institution, is used to solve specific problems in different areas, within the broad framework of existing social conditions. • In the final analysis, it is we, the common people, who are the ultimate judges of the meaning and value of science. Therefore science should not be kept as a mystery in the hands of a few. • The scope of science and its working as an institution has to be understood by all of us. Only then will we he able to demand that science be linked with our needs and be used for common welfare. Presentation Title | October 2, 2014 | <document classification>

  18. The Method of Science • The methods of exploring and enlarging scientific knowledge are continuously evolving through a complex interplay of mental and practical activity. Science cannot be given a purely intellectual character. • The method of science is made up of a number of operations, some mental, some manual. • Observation and experiment are essential for science. Now, everyone, whether a scientist or not, observes things and phenomena. • Scientists also have to make sure that observations are, as far as possible, independent of their sentiments and wishes. • However, systematic observation alone does not tell us "why things are as they are". Based on previous knowledge or observations, a speculative framework or a hypothesis is generally built to answer the question 'why'. • Experiments areset up to prove the first hypothesis. or to find under what conditions the idea is valid. This leads to formulation of more reliable laws and theories. Presentation Title | October 2, 2014 | <document classification>

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  20. Strategy of Science • The method of science is used to solve problems and to ensure that the solutions are satisfactory. But, how do problems arise? Why should a problem be solved? • In a broad sense, economic and social necessities pose problems to be solved. • For an individual scientist, however, the problem he solves is often a logical extension of the work of an earlier scientific worker. It is also to be noted that important advances in science are made by people who are just curious and who want to resolve the so called mysteries of nature. • Some of the great scientists of the past like Newton, Darwin and Einstein belong to this category. Presentation Title | October 2, 2014 | <document classification>

  21. The Tradition of Science • Scientific endeavor, at any point of time, depends on the existence of previous knowledge. • Without the stock of previous knowledge, the methods of the scientist would not be able to achieve much. • Scientists constantly strive to change the accepted truth. • Science is cumulative, that is, science at any time is the total result of all that science has been up to that date. • In science, it is only the current state of knowledge which is of the utmost importance as the past is fused into the present. • Art and religion appeal to personal faith and sentiment. In contrast, scientific activity always strives to reduce the personal or subjective component and build as objective a basis as possible. Results of science can always be checked, verified and repeated by anybody anywhere. This gives science a "universal" character. • The truth of science lies in its application. The final test of validity lies in testing scientific knowledge in real life, in controlling nature towards some chosen ends. Presentation Title | October 2, 2014 | <document classification>

  22. The Social Function of Science Science and the Means of Production • Science has always played a crucial role in production. The history of humankind, is principally, the history of how human beings have attempted to control and transform nature for their own use • In this, different tools and means of production have played a crucial role (Fig. 1.5). • The major historical epochs are called by the corresponding principal means of production: Stone Age. Bronze Age, and Iron Age. • In the last few centuries, the means of production have become very complex and, therefore, one now refers to the Industrial Age, Atomic or Space Age etc. on a very different basis. Presentation Title | October 2, 2014 | <document classification>

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  24. Early man strived to extract and fashion materials so that they could be used as tools to satisfy his prime needs. • Science flowered in different countries at different times. Generally, science thrived whenever a society had organised itself to increase the production of goods and to create a degree of satisfaction in its members. • The most fruitful periods of scientific advance were also those in which practice and theory could be combined, either in individual scientists, or in groups where practitioners of medicine, artisans and technicians mixed on equal terms with learned men. Presentation Title | October 2, 2014 | <document classification>

  25. The growth of science not only increases production but also leads to an improvement in the methods of production. • A few centuries ago, science and industry developed together so that the growth of science and the improvement in the methods of production were intimately related. • In the present stage. science has grown to such a point that it leads to the development of industry. Presentation Title | October 2, 2014 | <document classification>

  26. Science and Ideas • Theory and concept is also an essential part of science, which have played an important role in its advance. • The theoretical framework links together the practical achievements in science and gives them an intellectual unity. • Major advances in science occurred when a particular theory was proved or disproved. However, in science, theory is intimately linked with practice. • The theories of science are also influenced by the general intellectual atmosphere in the society in which scientists work. Presentation Title | October 2, 2014 | <document classification>

  27. SUMMARY • if we wish to answer questions arising from the interaction of our lives with science and technology, we have to refer to the history of science. It is also necessary to know the history of science if we want to understand the character of science and technology in the present-day society and wish to exercise a conscious control on their future development; • The history of science is not merely a description of the works of important scientists, or the dates of important scientific events that have to be mechanically memorised. It is a story of human life. It is a story of how science grew as an integral part of society; how developments in science led to a change in the material conditions of the society. The changed material conditions led to a change in the social conditions giving rise to a higher phase in society. And the higher phase created more complex and difficult problems for science to solve. In this way, the growth of science is intimately connected with the development of society; Presentation Title | October 2, 2014 | <document classification>

  28. Science, in the present-day society, can be seen as a social institution having its own methods and tradition, and an ever growing body of knowledge. Theory and practice are intimately linked in the growth of science; • In a given society, science influences the means of production. It not only increases production but also improves the methods of production in the society; • The ideas and theories in science are influenced by the prevailing social thought. And, in turn, the radical changes in scientific thought influence the social attitudes, beliefs and thinking. Presentation Title | October 2, 2014 | <document classification>

  29. UNIT 2. Science in the Ancient World Presentation Title | October 2, 2014 | <document classification>

  30. PRIMITIVE HUMAN SOCIETY Food Gathering and Hunting • In order to live, man needed to eat and to protect himself from the weather and animals. For both purposes he found it better to be in groups. Presentation Title | October 2, 2014 | <document classification>

  31. The Material Basis of Primitive Life • In the primitive society, human beings invented tools for catching animals, and for collecting, transporting and even preparing food. They looked for protection against the elements of nature in the form of clothing and shelter in the caves. • The material basis of primitive life is reflected in the tools and other artifacts that have been found in archaeological surveys. The tools are all made up of stones. This is why that era has been named as the Stone Age. Presentation Title | October 2, 2014 | <document classification>

  32. Implements and Tools • Stones were shaped to suit a specific purpose like digging, throwing or scraping. Their shapes and sizes became standardised over a period of time in different geographical regions. These shapes and sizes became so stable that they continue in some tribal societies even today. Presentation Title | October 2, 2014 | <document classification>

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  34. The major development at this stage, however, was the invention of master tools : the implements to make implements • The tools were used not only for hunting, but also provided a means of shaping and preparing softer materials such as wood, bone and skin for decoration and art, or for protection from cold weather. Certain refinement of tools used for making hunting implements and the knowledge of how to handle soft materials led to pinning. sewing, tying, twisting, twining and weaving (Fig. 2.5) Presentation Title | October 2, 2014 | <document classification>

  35. The stone tools described above were used for various purposes like chopping wood, digging. skinning animals, scraping off the flesh and breaking the fibres under the skin, as well as for splitting canes for weaving baskets or preparing fish for the fire. Presentation Title | October 2, 2014 | <document classification>

  36. Clothes • The concept of clothes might have started even before weaving, as an extension of the practice of carrying food and implements about. Fire and Cookery Exactly where and when fire came to be used is not known. Fire, to start with, must have been frightening thing, giving rise to many myths and legends. However, as man slowly learned to control it, he found it very useful to keep himself warm and to frighten away wild animals. Presentation Title | October 2, 2014 | <document classification>

  37. Social Basis of Primitive Life • Language • Language must have originated as several individuals in a group cooperated in hunting and other activities related to food gathering. • Social Life and Rituals • The social life of the earliest human groups or tribes revolved around food gathering. • Magic, Religion and Caste Presentation Title | October 2, 2014 | <document classification>

  38. The Origins of Science • Rational Mechanics • Observation and Description • Classification Presentation Title | October 2, 2014 | <document classification>

  39. End of Stone Age • The essential feature of the hunting and food gathering society was its dependence on nature. • It could eat off nature but could not control nature to increase the food supply when its population grew. • Due to their lack of control over natural disasters, at times, most of the population of a tribe was wiped out. Presentation Title | October 2, 2014 | <document classification>

  40. The end of the Stone Age was also brought about by climatic changes. • In Europe and in the northern hemisphere, with the onset of very cold conditions (the Ice Age), food gathering and hunting activities became restricted and difficult. • The society had to struggle for its survival by developing a different type of production. Presentation Title | October 2, 2014 | <document classification>

  41. AGRICULTURE AND CIVILISATION • The next period in the evolution of human society is known as the Bronze Age, named after the new alloy which replaced stone during this period. • This period was, in fact, the beginning of a new type of productive activity, namely, agriculture. • The rise of cities and the changing socio-economic needs led to the birth of science. Presentation Title | October 2, 2014 | <document classification>

  42. The Origin of Agriculture and Civilisation • Growth of Cities • Changes in Social Organisation Presentation Title | October 2, 2014 | <document classification>

  43. Scientific and Technical Achievements of Bronze Age • The Use of Metals • Transport Presentation Title | October 2, 2014 | <document classification>

  44. Quantitative Science Fig. 2.19: (a) Writing materials in ancient Egypt: ink-pot, sharpened reed and jar for water: (b) some Egyptian hieroglyphs. Fig. 2.20: Mesopotamian cuneiform: the laws of king Hammurabi (about 1800 B.C.) of Mesopotamia. carved on a pillar. The top of the pillar shows the Sun god offering the code of laws to Hammurabi and below is the code. A replica of this pillar is kept at the National Museum. New Delhi. Presentation Title | October 2, 2014 | <document classification>

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  46. The great cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, now in Pakistan, were discovered in the 1920s. They were the first evidence of a fairly advanced civilisation in the Indus Valley. Indus Valley Civilisation Presentation Title | October 2, 2014 | <document classification>

  47. Fig. 2.23: (a) A public drain by the side of houses, Lothal; (b) the water tank, Mohenjo-daro. Presentation Title | October 2, 2014 | <document classification>

  48. Decline of the Bronze Age Civilisation • The great developments in production methods that came with the rise of early cities lasted only for a few centuries. • The initial burst of technical advance was followed by a long period of stagnation. Cities arose and fell; one dynasty of priest-kings overthrew another. • But there was no change in the pattern of production. It remained based on irrigation agriculture, supplemented by trade with other cultures. • This, probably, happened because in this process the social organisation had also changed. • In the primitive human society no special groups existed, whereas there now came into being different strata in the society. Presentation Title | October 2, 2014 | <document classification>

  49. There arose a division between those who produced and those who appropriated the produce. • This also meant a division between the thinkers and the doers, between theory and practice. • The unequal distribution of the produce resulted in the rise of a dominant group of priest-kings, 'the thinkers' who isolated themselves from farmers and urban craftsmen, 'the doers'. In the attempt of the priest-kings to consolidate their power, the gulf between the two increased, leading to stagnation in society and in science. • Barbarian invasions further weakened the city states. Presentation Title | October 2, 2014 | <document classification>

  50. To end the story of Bronze Age, while civilisation stagnated at the centre near the rivers, its influence was spreading wider and wider. • An impressive and valuable stock of knowledge was handed on to the succeeding generations. • The science and techniques of the next major historical epoch, the Iron Age, are largely derived from those of the ancient world. Presentation Title | October 2, 2014 | <document classification>