CPT Joseph Hout, Assistant Professor, MSPH, REHS Winter, 2008 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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CPT Joseph Hout, Assistant Professor, MSPH, REHS Winter, 2008 PowerPoint Presentation
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CPT Joseph Hout, Assistant Professor, MSPH, REHS Winter, 2008

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  1. CPT Joseph Hout, Assistant Professor,MSPH, REHS Winter, 2008 Radiation

  2. Learning Objectives • Be familiar with definitions used in class • Know the sources for the various types of radiation discussed in class • Be able to discuss characteristics as well as protection from alpha, beta, gamma, and x rays • Know radiation units • Know about radon and its cancer causing effects • Be able to discuss EPA carcinogenicty categories and give examples • Know how radon enters a home and how to protect against it

  3. Definitions • Ionizing radiation • Radiation capable of producing ions when interacting with matter • X rays, Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Cosmic rays • Nonionizing radiation • Radiation that does not have enough energy to remove an electron from an atom or molecule • UV light, Visible light, Infrared radiation, microwaves, radio and TV, power transmission

  4. Ionizing Radiation • 4 types of Ionizing radiation • Alpha particles • Beta particles • Gamma photons • X ray photons

  5. Ionizing Radiation • Alpha Particles • Large in Mass (+2) • Effects are short range (stopped by paper) • Hazardous - Inhalation and ingestion • Not part of the electromagnetic spectrum – has mass • Beta Particles • Relatively small mass and charge (-1) • Fast moving (stopped by thin metal or plastic) • Hazardous – inhalation, ingestion, skin burns • Not part of the electromagnetic spectrum –has mass

  6. Ionizing Radiation • Gamma Photons • Pure energy • Ionizing radiation at the high frequency end of spectrum • NO MASS • Very penetrating – external and internal radiation hazard • Travels at the speed of light • No charge • PRIMARY PROTECTION • Time • Distance • Shielding

  7. Ionizing Radiation • X Ray Photons • Similar to gamma • Penetrates less than gamma • PRIMARY PROTECTION • Time • Distance • Shielding

  8. Ionizing Radiation

  9. Ionizing Radiation • Radiation Damage - 4 things can happen • 1 – Pass through cell without causing damage • 2 – Damage the cell, but cell repairs itself • 3 – Damage the cell so repairs and replicates a damaged form • 4 – Kills the cell • Somatic effects appear in exposed person • Damage to cells that are NOT reproductive cells • Occur immediately or over years • Genetic effects can effect future generations • Reproductive cells • Can be inherited

  10. Carcinogenicity Categories • Class A – Human Carcinogen • RADON, Tobacco smoke Po210 • Class B1 – Probable human carcinogen • Limited evidence but not conclusive • UVA, UVB • Class B2 – Probable human carcinogen • Inadequate cause and effect evidence • UVA, UBV • Class C – Possible human carcinogen • Class D – Not classifiable as a human carcinogen • Class E – Evidence of non carcinogenicity

  11. Regulating Radiation • Nuclear Regulatory Commission • Nuclear Power Plants and Fuels • Department of Energy • Military • Argon National Lab, Fermi, Oak Ridge • EPA • Naturally occurring • Radon RECOMMENDATIONS

  12. Regulating Radiation • piC/L • A picocurie is a trillionth of a curie and represents about one radioactive particle disintegration every 27 seconds • Becquerel per meter3 (Bq/m3) • One becquerel per meter3 is one disintegration per second within a cubic meter • Absorbed dose – Gray (Gy) formerly Rad • Amount of energy absorbed • Equivalent Dose – Sievert (Sv) formerly REM • Makes different sources of radiation equivalent • Measures biological effect • Roentgen (R) – • Equivalent dose of ionizing radiation received by tissues and organs – takes in a quality factor for dangerous radiation

  13. Regulating Radiation • Radon – ALPHA EMITTER • All manmade Class A carcinogens are regulated • Radon regulated in mines since 1950s • Not regulated in homes because is not manmade • Standard of exposure • 4.0 pCi/l • Equates to 28 deaths per million per year • OSHA = 100 pCi/l

  14. Radon • Radon 222 is the decay product of radium 226. • Radium 226 is the decay product of Uranium 228. • Uranium is ubiquitous in the earth’s crust making Radium 226 and Radon 222 in almost all rock, soil, and water • Colorless, odorless, tasteless • Leaks into basements of houses, office, schools via • Foundation cracks • Sump pump wells • Drains • Well water

  15. Radon

  16. Radon • Protection • Test your house, work, school etc • Seal and Vent • Sub slab depressurization • Discharge above the highest eve • Post mitigation re test • Test location after work is completed • Test every two years

  17. Questions ?