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Centre for Supramolecular Chemistry Research, University of Cape Town, South Africa and Institut für Pharmazie, Leopold Franzens Universität Innsbruck, Austria presents. Introduction to Polymorphism Starring Andreas Lemmerer and Molecules with Chronic Multiple Chemical Personality Disorder ☺.

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slide1

Centre for Supramolecular Chemistry Research, University of Cape Town, South Africa

and

Institut für Pharmazie, Leopold Franzens Universität Innsbruck, Austria

presents

Introduction to PolymorphismStarringAndreas Lemmerer and Molecules with Chronic Multiple Chemical Personality Disorder☺

polymorphism
Polymorphism
  • Definition:A phenomenon which occurs whenever a given chemical compound exists in more than one structural form or arrangement.
  • McCrone: A solid crystalline phase of a given compound resulting from the possibility of at least two different arrangements of molecules of that compound in the solid state.
  • Examples: Diamond and Graphite are allotropes of the element carbon. Diamond has a tetrahedral arrangement of carbon atoms, which forms four covalent bonds; whereas graphite has a hexagonal arrangement and forms three covalent bonds.
slide3

Concomitant Polymorphs of the AntihyperlipoproteinemicBezafibrate

A. Lemmerer, N. Báthori, C. Esterhuysen, Susan A. Bourne and Mino R. Caira, Crystal Growth & Design, 2009, 2646-2655

background information
Background Information
  • 2-[4-[2-(4-chlorobenzamide)ethyl]phenoxy]-2-methylpropanoic acid, marketed as Bezalip®.
  • Bezafibrate is used to regulate the amount of lipid produced by the body, lowering the amount of low density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglycerides and raising the amount of high density lipoprotein (HDL), which reduces the risk of heart disease.
  • The preparation of bezafibrate is reported in the patent literature (DE-PS 21 49 070 US-PS 4,749,101 and DE-PS 29 20 413).
  • Crystals of bezafibrate were grown from acetone or water solutions and were reported to have a melting point of 183°C (US-PS 4,749,101) and 186°C (DE-PS 21 49 070). The habit of bezafibrate crystals thus prepared is needle-like.
  • However, working on a large scale with needle-like crystals is complicated by filtration and processability. The crystal habit is an important factor in the large-scale production.
  • Patent EP 0 625 504 A17 later described the preparation of a new “b-form”, which crystallizes as block-shaped crystals. The crystals were grown from a mixture of water and a ketone (examples of ketones used are 2-butanone, 3-pentanone and 4-methyl-2-oxopentane), together with a 4-10% v/v addition of an alcohol.
  • We prepared the same block-like crystals by adding nicotinamide to the crystallization solution containing 2-butanone.
overlay of conformations
Overlay of Conformations

Form a: Green and Purple; Form b: Blue