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SOCIAAL KAPITAAL EN WELVAART. Prof. Em. Wim Moesen Centrum voor Economische Studiën Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Seniorenuniversiteit UHasselt 21 september 2009. INHOUD. SOCIAAL KAPITAAL EN ECONOMISCHE WELVAART Transmissiemechanisme METEN EN VALIDEREN Empirische bevindingen

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sociaal kapitaal en welvaart

SOCIAAL KAPITAAL EN WELVAART

Prof. Em. Wim Moesen

Centrum voor Economische Studiën

Katholieke Universiteit Leuven

Seniorenuniversiteit UHasselt

21 september 2009

inhoud
INHOUD
  • SOCIAAL KAPITAAL EN ECONOMISCHE WELVAART
    • Transmissiemechanisme
  • METEN EN VALIDEREN
    • Empirische bevindingen
  • STERKTEN- ZWAKTENANALYSE
    • Beleidsconclusies
slide3
SOCIAAL KAPITAAL

FORMELE INSTELLINGEN

(wetten, regels, organisaties…)

INFORMELE INSTELLINGEN

(normen, conventies, taboes…)

CULTURELE WAARDEN

slide4
WELVAART

ECONOMISCHE PERFORMANTIE

VERTROUWEN

SOCIAAL KAPITAAL

transmissiemechanisme
TRANSMISSIEMECHANISME?
  • Vermindert transactiekosten
  • Verhoogt productiviteit

Macro-economische

performanties

Vertrouwen

slide6
Francis FUKAYAMA (1995)

“Trust: the social virtues and economic prosperity”

BENADERING VAN DE TRANSACTIEKOSTEN

  • Douglas NORTH (1993)
  • Oliver WILLIAMSON (1975, 1979, 1985)
maatschappelijk kapitaal en vertrouwen
MAATSCHAPPELIJK KAPITAAL EN VERTROUWEN

Maatschappelijk kapitaal

= cultuur van de maatschappij

Met - formele beperkingen

grondwet, wetten,…

- informele beperkingen

morele waarden, attitudes,…

Beïnvloedt vertrouwen in de maatschappij

Vertrouwen in de publieke sector

Beïnvloedt economische performantie

meten en valideren
METEN EN VALIDEREN
  • DATA ECONOMISCHE PERFORMANTIE
  • DATA CULTURELE WAARDEN
  • BEVINDINGEN
de constructie van een composiet index voor de meting van performantie
DE CONSTRUCTIE VAN EEN COMPOSIET-INDEX VOOR DE METING VAN PERFORMANTIE
  • SCOPE: WELKE INDICATOREN?
  • NORMALISERING: HOE HERSCHALEN?
  • AGGREGATIE: WELKE WEGING?
synthetische indicator van macro economsiche performantie
SYNTHETISCHE INDICATOR VAN MACRO-ECONOMSICHE PERFORMANTIE

TINBERGEN

REELE GROEI

LOPENDE REKENING

BETALINGSBALANS

WERKLOOSHEID

INFLATIE

vertrouwen in publieke sector economische performantie
VERTROUWEN IN PUBLIEKE SECTOR & ECONOMISCHE PERFORMANTIE

Meetinstrumenten: economische performantie

Groei BBP

Inflatie

4 factoren

Wekloosheidsgraad

Saldo op lopende rekening

Simep

Limep

2 maatstaven

Ongewogen

Gewogen

Met saldo

Lopende rekening

Simep 4 / Limep 4

2 families

zonder saldo

Lopende rekening

Simep 3 / Limep 3

data culturele waarden
DATA CULTURELE WAARDEN
  • Twee indicatoren:
  • Vertrouwen in publieke sector: synthetische maatstaf
          • Favoritisme
          • Onafhankelijkheid rechterlijke macht
  • 5 ingrediënten Corruptie
  • Regeringsverbintenissen
          • Vertrouwen in eerlijkheid van politici
  • (2) Werkethiek (arbeidsmotivatie, loyauteit,…)
slide17
Global Competitiveness Report 2008-2009

What is competitiveness?

The World Competitiveness Report definescompetitiveness as the set of institutions,policies, and factors that determine thelevel of productivity of a country

slide18
Global Competitiveness Report 2008-2009

Problems when constructing aComposite Indicator

  • Problem of scope
  • 2. Problem of normalisation
  • 3. Problem fo weighting
slide19
The index is composed of 12 pillars measuringdifferent aspects of an economy’s competitiveness
    • Basic Requirements
  • I. Institutions
  • II. Infrastructure
  • III. Macroeconomic stability
  • IV. Health and primary education
    • Efficiency Enhancers
  • V. Higher education and training
  • VI. Goods market efficiency
  • VII. Labor market efficiency
  • VIII. Financial market sophistication
  • IX. Technological readiness
  • X. Market size
    • Innovation and sophistication factors
  • XI. Business sophistication
  • XII. Innovation
  • Key for
  • factor-driven
  • economies
  • Key for
  • efficiency-driven
  • economies
  • Key for
  • innovation-driven
  • economies
slide20
Survey methodology
  • The hard data indicators used in the GCI arenormalized on a 1- to 7- scale
  • Official public sources are often insufficient forpainting an accurate picture of a country’s businessoperating environment.
  • -> Executive opinion survey: Soft Data
slide21
Executive Opinion Survey
  • Survey conducted by Partner Institutes- Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School exclusively for Belgium
  • Overall, 12.297 business leaders were questioned in a 134 national economies
  • Average of 90 responses per country- Belgium received 109 responses!
  • - Random selection based on sector share in national GDP
slide22
Belgium’s Competitiveness Rank: 2001-2008Growth Competitiveness Index (Old series)

Global Competitiveness Index (New series)

slide24
Important changes 2008-2009 vs. 2007-2008
  • No changes in top 4, Singapore enters top 5
  • France, the UK and the Netherlands were already better ranked than Belgium and are characterized by major improvements. Germany stays ahead of Belgium.
  • Improvements in China whereas India fell to the 50th place
slide31
The most problematic Factorsfor doing business in Belgium
  • Restrictive labour regulations (19,2 % of responses)
  • Tax rates (17,3% of responses)
  • Inefficient government bureaucracy (12,2% of responses)
  • Tax regulations (11,1% of responses)
  • Inadequately educated workforce (9,8% of responses)
vertrouwen in belgische overheidsinstellingen
VERTROUWEN IN BELGISCHE OVERHEIDSINSTELLINGEN

Gezondheidszorg 82,6

Onderwijs 77,9

Sociale zekerheid 69,4

Politie 55,4

Overheidsadministratie 46,1

Parlement 39,1

Justitie 36,4

(Bron: European Values Study, 2000)

vertrouwen in instellingen 2002
VERTROUWEN IN INSTELLINGEN (2002)

Onderwijs 79,1%

Gemeentelijke administratie 52,5%

Vlaamse Administratie 40,4%

Gerecht 30,1%

(Bron: Instituut voor de Overheid, Werken aan de Overheid)

trust in institutions
TRUST IN INSTITUTIONS

Eurobarometer 2003

slide35
One of the most problematic factors for doing business

in Belgium

Inefficient government bureaucracy

Trust in Belgian institutions

slide36
Government effectiveness

Data on Government Effectiveness

→ borrowed from World Bank:

Kaufmann et al., ‘Governance Matters’, (edition 2007)

- Survey data for 212 countries

- Composite indicator

slide39
Global Competitiveness Index

versus budget size

.

slide44
Output

D

FDH best practice frontier

H

F

B

G

A

C

xo, yo

E

Input

Non-parametric approach

slide45
Non-parametric approach

Budget size corrected for:

- Small open economy (Dani Rodrick, 1998)

- Small family size

slide47
The quality of government

The quality of government is related to (correlation coefficient)

- The strictness of the budgetary procedures 0.66

(12 EU-countries)

- The trust in other people 0.62

(23 OECD-countries)

- The trust of foreigners 0.89

(19 EU-countries)

contents of happiness
CONTENTS OF HAPPINESS

Subjective well-being

+ personality characteristics

+ socio-demographic factors

Human well-being

+ health

+ education

Economic welfare

+ employment

+ inflation

GDP

Regrettables

life satisfaction 1999 2000 ruud veenhoven tilburg university
LIFE SATISFACTION (1999-2000)RUUD VEENHOVEN, TILBURG UNIVERSITY

CORRELATIONS WITH

Control of corruption .85

Rule of law .85

Government effectiveness (World Bank) .83

Political voice and accountability .78

Membership voluntary organisations .63

Health expenditures per capita .60

Trust in official institutions .55

Trust in people .54

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