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Physical Activity, Fitness Components and Exercise Principles . Mrs. Chastain Health Education Arlington High School. Importance of Daily Physical Activity. What is physical a ctivity ?.
Physical Activity, Fitness Components and Exercise Principles Mrs. Chastain Health Education Arlington High School
What is physical activity? • Physical activity is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health • It is performed for various reasons • These include strengthening muscles and the cardiovascular system, honing athletic skills, weight loss or maintenance and for enjoyment
Benefits of Physical Activity • Helps build and maintain healthy bones, muscles and joints • Helps control weight, build lean muscle and reduce fat • Prevents or delays the development of high blood pressure and helps reduce blood pressure in some adolescents with hypertension
How does physical activity benefit body systems? • Cardiovascular System: Regular physical activity can strengthen your heart muscle, allowing it to pump blood more efficiently • Lower heart rate, blood pressure • Respiratory System: Regular physical activity allows this system to work more efficiently • Make ADLs easier to handle • Nervous System: By helping you respond more quickly to stimuli, physical activity can improve your reaction time
Risk associated with physical “in”activity • -Unhealthy weight management - cardiovascular disease - type 2 diabetes - cancer • Increased risk of osteoporosis: a condition characterized by a decrease in bone density, producing porous and fragile bones • Reduced ability to manage stress
Fitness Components Flexibility Cardiorespiratory Endurance Muscular Strength & Muscular Endurance Body Composition
Health Related Components: Those factors that are related to how well the systems of your body work • Cardiorespiratory Endurance: The ability of the circulatory system (heart and blood vessels) to supply oxygen to working muscles during exercise. • Body Composition: The relative percentage of body fat compared to lean body mass (muscle, bone, water,etc) • Flexibility: The range of movement possible at various joints. • Muscular Strength: The amount of force that can be produced by a single contraction of a muscle • Muscular Endurance: The ability of a muscle group to continue muscle movement over a length of time.
Cardiorespiratory Endurance • This is the body's ability, over sustained periods of physical activity, to deliver oxygen and nutrients to tissues, and to remove wastes • “Aerobic” Exercise • “With Oxygen”
Muscular Endurance • This is the ability of a muscle, or a group of muscles, to sustain repeated contractions or to continue applying force against a fixed object
Types of Muscular Endurance • Continuous tension • Mountain climbing • Tug-of-war • Isometric contraction • Weight training • very slow contraction • isolated exercises • compound exercises without lock out • Repetitive dynamic contraction • Running • Rowing • Weight training • high repetitions /low weight • super sets with the same muscle • Prolonged intense contractions coupled with short rest periods • Football • Handball • Weight training • multiple sets • multiple exercises for the same muscle • circuit training
Muscular Strength • This is the muscle's ability to exert force for a brief span of time
Types of Muscular Strength • Isometric contraction • Iron Cross (Gymnastics) • Tug-of-war • Erector Spinae mm. during Squat, Deadlift, etc… • Dynamic contraction • Powerlifting • Weight training • Power contraction • Olympic style weightlifting • Shot put (Field Event) • Plyometrics
Flexibility • This is the ability to move joints and use muscles through their full range of motion • This should be performed before and after each workout to avoid injury and relax mm.
Body Composition • Lean body mass vs. fat mass • Lean body mass represents the weight of water, muscle, bone and internal organs • Body fat represents the remaining fat tissue and is expressed as a percentage of total body weight • Because muscle weighs more than fat, it is important to measure your body composition rather than your body weight when you Evaluate Your Fitness Level • Downfall of BMI
Skill Related Components: Aspects of fitness which form the basis for successful sport or activity participation. • Speed: The ability to move quickly from one point to another in a straight line • Agility: The ability of the body to change direction quickly • Balance: The ability to maintain an upright posture while still or moving • Coordination: Integration with hand and/or foot movements with the input of the senses. • Reaction Time: Amount of time it takes to get moving. • Power: The ability to do strength work at an explosive pace.
Exercise Principles • FITT • Progression • Overload • Specificity • Whole Body Exercise
F.I.T.T. • Frequency- how often you exercise • Intensity- how hard you exercise • Time- how long you exercise • Type- the type of exercise you're doing (e.g., running, walking, etc.)
Specificity • Exercise should be specific to your goals • If you're trying to improve your racing times, you should focus on speed workouts • If you main goal is to increase strength, you should weight train • If your main goal is overall health, fitness and weight management, you should focus on total body strength, cardio and a healthy diet
Overload • Body parts must be overloaded high enough above normal for it to adapt to become stronger
Progression • Increasing your overload appropriately • Increasing you FITT as needed • Add more time, weight, etc… as your body adapts to exercise(s)
Whole Body Exercise • Muscles must be in balance • Many people do not exercise their whole body; they will work only certain body parts, such as their stomach, hips, and thighs • The body must be in balance or an injury is more likely to occur • The saying “a system is strongest by it’s weakest link” is true
Rest and Recovery • Rest and recovery is also essential for reaching your nutrition and fitness goals • Can often do cardio every day (though you may want to rest after very intense workouts) • Should have at least a day of rest between strength training workouts • Make sure you don't work the same muscles two days in a row to give your body the time it needs to rest and recover