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ECE I. Final Exam Review. UNIT A Personal & Professional Preparation. 1.02 Habits of successful people 4% 2.02 Responsibilities of EC Professionals 4% 3.01 Observation Methods 4% 3.02 Teaching Methods 4%. Unit B Child Development Birth-12. 4.01 Domains of Child Development 7%

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ece i

ECE I

Final Exam Review

unit a personal professional preparation
UNIT APersonal & Professional Preparation
  • 1.02
    • Habits of successful people
      • 4%
  • 2.02
    • Responsibilities of EC Professionals
      • 4%
  • 3.01
    • Observation Methods
      • 4%
  • 3.02
    • Teaching Methods
      • 4%
unit b child development birth 12
Unit BChild Development Birth-12
  • 4.01
    • Domains of Child Development
      • 7%
  • 4.02
    • Developmental Characteristics of children
      • 7%
  • 4.03
    • Theories of Child Dev.
      • 7%
  • 5.01
    • Dev. Appropriate Activities for Infants/Toddlers within PLACES (Domains)
      • 7%
  • 5.02
    • Apply appropriate reading activities children 3-5
      • 6%
  • 6.01
    • Dev. Appropriate activities in specific areas for learning for children 3-8
      • 9%
  • 6.02
    • Evaluate Dev. Appropriate programs for school-age children
      • 5%
unit c working with children
Unit CWorking with Children
  • 7.01
    • Communicating expectations and setting limits
      • 5%
  • 7.02
    • Guiding Behavior
      • 7%
  • 8.01
    • Health & Safety policies for EC Settings
      • 5%
  • 8.02
    • Emergency procedures in EC Settings
      • 4%
unit d the field of ece
Unit DThe Field of ECE
  • 9.01
    • Leaders in the History of ECE
      • 4%
  • 9.02
    • Historical Events EC Related Programs
      • 4%
  • 10.01
    • Career Trends and Opportunities in ECE
      • 4%
  • 10.02
    • Benefits and limitations of work and education options
      • 3%
study objectives in this order
Study Objectives in this order
  • 6.01=9%
    • Dev. Appropriate activities in specific areas for learning for children 3-8
  • 4.01=7%
    • Domains of Child Development
  • 4.02=7%
    • Developmental Characteristics of children
  • 4.03=7%
    • Theories of Child Dev.
  • 5.01=7%
    • Dev. Appropriate Activities for Infants/Toddlers within PLACES (Domains)
  • 7.02=7%
    • Guiding Behavior

The higher the %, the more questions you will see from that Objective on the Final VoCATS Exam!

study objectives in this order1
Study Objectives in this order
  • 5.02=6%
    • Apply appropriate reading activities children 3-5
  • 6.02=5%
    • Evaluate Dev. Appropriate programs for school-age children
  • 7.01=5%
    • Communicating expectations and setting limits
  • 8.01=5%
    • Health & Safety policies for EC Settings
study objectives in this order2
Study Objectives in this order
  • 1.02=4%--Habits of successful people
  • 2.02=4%--Responsibilities of EC Professionals
  • 3.01=4%--Observation Methods
  • 3.02=4%--Teaching Methods
  • 8.02=4%--Emergency procedures in EC Settings
  • 9.01=4%--Leaders in the History of ECE
  • 9.02=4%--Historical Events EC Related Programs
  • 10.01=4%--Career Trends/Opportunities in ECE
  • 10.02=3%--Benefits/limitations of work/edu. options
final exam
Final Exam
  • 100 questions
  • Comprehensive
    • Objective 1.02, 2.02-10.02
  • PLEASE READ CAREFULLY
    • Don’t assume an answer choice until you have read it twice to double-check!!
  • Process of elimination
    • Automatically mark out answer choices you know are NOT IT!!!!
  • The answer is usually in the question
    • Look for KEY WORDS!!! & underline them!!!
7 habits
7 Habits
  • Be PROACTIVE
      • Take responsibility for your life.
  • Begin with END in MIND
      • Define your mission and goals in life.
  • Put 1st things 1st
      • Prioritize, and do most important things 1st.
  • Think WIN-WIN
    • Have an everyone-can-win attitude.
  • Seek 1st to understand, then to be understood
    • Listen to people sincerely.
  • Synergize
    • Work together as a TEAM to achieve more
  • Sharpen the Saw
    • Renew yourself regularly
skills needed by early childhood professionals
Skills Neededby Early Childhood Professionals
  • Basic communication
  • Math
  • Thinking
  • Life
  • Interpersonal
  • Leadership
  • Resource management
  • Professional communication
life skills
Life Skills
  • Leadership
  • Ethics
  • Accountability
  • Adaptability
  • Personal productivity
  • Personal responsibility
  • People skills
  • Self-direction
  • Social responsibility
primary responsibilities of early childhood professionals
Primary Responsibilitiesof Early Childhood Professionals
  • Know how children grow and develop
  • Plan developmentally appropriate curricula
  • Prepare the environment
  • Communicate effectively
  • Get along with co-workers
  • Manage time wisely
  • Continue to learn
what type of observation method is this
What type of Observation method is this?
  • More controlled conditions
  • Examples
    • Standardized tests
    • Research instruments

(surveys, questionnaires, etc.)

  • Results used to form developmental norms
  • Require specialized training
what type of observation method is this1
What type of observation method is this?
  • Less controlled conditions
  • Easier to use
  • More appropriate for program planning
  • Examples
    • Interviewing parents
    • Talking with children
    • Observing students in the classroom
    • Collecting student work samples
simple records
SIMPLE records
  • Frequency count
  • Checklist
  • Rating scale
detailed descriptions
DETAILED descriptions
  • Running record
  • Anecdotal record
guidelines for observing in e arly c hildhood e ducation
Guidelines for Observing in Early Childhood Education
  • Be a person of character, a model of honesty, integrity, and fairness
  • Be sensitive to the needs of others

T

H

I

C

S

guidelines for observing in e arly c hildhood e ducation1
Guidelines for Observing in Early Childhood Education
  • Keep information about teachers, children, and parents to yourself.

O

N

F

I

D

E

N

T

I

A

L

I

T

Y

guidelines for observing in e arly c hildhood e ducation2
Guidelines for Observing in Early Childhood Education
  • Demonstrate behavior that serves as a good example for young children.

X

A

M

P

L

E

the goal in observing is to be objective
The goal in observing is to be objective.
  • Objective = reporting facts
  • Subjective = opinions, impressions
when is an anecdotal record used
When is an anecdotal record used?

When you want to gather information about a specific situation or incident

when is a frequency count used
When is a frequency count used?

Whenever you need to tally and record how many times a behavior is occurring

ways children learn
Ways Children Learn
  • From the environment
  • From a teacher
  • From their experiences
learning from the environment
Learning from the environment
  • Variety of manipulatives
  • Interactive environment with opportunities to explore and experiment
learning from a teacher
Learning from a teacher
  • Provides positive reinforcement
  • Is a good role model for children to imitate

When a person shows someone else how to do something, this is called modeling.

learning from experiences
Learning from experiences
  • Sensory elements
  • Trial and error
  • Learn from mistakes
  • Address all areas of development
2 types of play
2 types of play
  • Open-ended
    • Can be used in a variety of ways, with no one correct way to play with them
  • Closed-ended
    • Structured materials meant to be used in one way, with one intended outcome
benefits of open ended materials for children
Benefits of Open-ended Materials for Children
  • Develop independence
  • Learn to make decisions
  • Learn to solve problems
  • Use their imagination
benefits of closed ended materials for children
Benefits of Closed-ended Materials for Children
  • Learn to follow directions
  • Develop sensory perception
  • Help develop motor skills
purposes of lesson plans
Purposes of Lesson Plans
  • Serves as an organizational tool
  • Forces teachers to think ahead
  • Enables teachers to think through what they want to do
  • Provides time to gather needed materials
  • Can be saved for future reference

Copy

results of teaching without lesson plans
Results of Teaching without Lesson Plans???
  • Lessons flounder and fail
  • Time wasted
  • Children bored
  • Materials not ready
  • Things left out

chaos

copy

lessons usually include these lesson functions
Lessons usually include these lesson functions:
  • Focus and review
    • Introduction to capture attention, focus on the topic, review
  • Statement of objective
    • State what children will learn
  • Teacher input
    • Introduce new information
  • Student guided practice
    • Give children a chance to use the new information
  • Independent practice
    • See how well children can do things on their own
  • Closure
    • Summarize, bring the activity to an end

Closure may include transition to the next activity...

domains of child development places
Domains ofChild Development -- PLACES
  • Physical Development & Health
    • Motor skills, Self-care. Growth, Safety awareness
  • Language Development & Communication
    • Receptive/Expressive language, Reading/Writing
  • Approaches to Learning
    • Pondering, processing, applying experiences, Curiosity, information-seeking, eagerness, Risk-taking, problem-solving,
  • Cognitive Development
    • Thinking skills
  • Emotional Development
    • Developing a sense of self
  • Social Development
    • Developing a sense of self with others
erik erikson human dev
Erik Erikson-Human Dev.

Life is a series of stages

Each individual must pass through each stage

Way in which a person handlers each of these stages affects the person’s identity and self-concept

psychosocial stages
Psychosocial Stages

Newborn

Trust Vs. Mistrust

Toddler

Autonomy Vs. Shame and Doubt

Preschool Child

Initiative Vs. Guilt

School-age child

Industry Vs. Inferiority

Adolescent

Identity Vs. Role Confusion

Young adult

Intimacy Vs. Isolation

Adult

Generatively Vs. Stagnation

Elder

Integrity Vs. Despair

jean piaget cognitive dev
Jean Piaget-Cognitive Dev.

Behavior of children and the dev. of their thinking can only be explained by the interaction of:

Nature

intrinsic dev.

Nurture

extrinsic environmental factors

children pass through specific stages as they develop their cognitive dev skills
Children pass through specific stages as they develop their Cognitive Dev. Skills:

Sensorimotor

Birth-2 years

Infants develop their intellect

Preoperational

2-6 years

Children begin to think symbolically and imaginatively

Concrete Operational

6-12 years

Children learn to think logically

Formal operational

12 yrs-adulthood

Adults develop critical thinking skills

b f skinner others behaviorism
B.F. Skinner & others-Behaviorism

Based on Locke’s tabula rasa (“clean slate”) idea

Skinner theorized that a child is an “empty organism”

An empty vessel

waiting to be filled through learning experiences

lev vygotsky sociocultural theory
Lev Vygotsky-Sociocultural Theory
  • Cultural environments
  • Children learn values
  • Beliefs
  • Skills
  • Traditions
    • eventually pass on to their own children
howard gardner 8 multiple intelligences
Howard Gardner 8 Multiple Intelligences

Linguistic

Logical-mathematical

Spatial

Bodily – kinesthetic

Intrapersonal

Interpersonal

Musical

Naturalistic

maslow s motivational theory
Maslow’s Motivational Theory
  • He say’s….
    • Once our most critical needs—physical, are met, individuals can focus on achieving higher and loftier needs such as love, respect, and self-actualization.
what types of activities support development in the places domains of infants toddlers
What types of activities support development in the PLACES Domains of infants & toddlers?
  • Physical
    • Music and Movement Activities
      • Rolling and bouncing
      • Playing with rattles
      • Playing music
      • Group movement activities
      • Reflexes
      • Holding, rocking, singing
what types of activities support development in the places domains of infants toddlers1
What types of activities support development in the PLACES Domains of infants & toddlers?
  • Language/Reading Activities
    • Reading books to children
    • Storytelling
    • Talking to children to promote cooing
what types of activities support development in the places domains of infants toddlers2
What types of activities support development in the PLACES Domains of infants & toddlers?
  • Approach to Learning
    • Science Activities
      • Activities to extend attention span
      • Activities to promote curiosity
      • Sensory activities, including textures,
      • hanging toys to see and hear
what types of activities support development in the places domains of infants toddlers3
What types of activities support development in the PLACES Domains of infants & toddlers?
  • Cognitive
    • Math Activities
      • Visually tracking moving objects
      • Interactive toys
      • Seeing shapes and forms
      • Thinking through sequences
what types of activities support development in the places domains of infants toddlers4
What types of activities support development in the PLACES Domains of infants & toddlers?
  • Emotional
    • Art Activities
    • Pictures of emotions posted
    • Toys with colors
    • Activities with shapes
    • Bubbles
    • Mirrors
what types of activities support development in the places domains of infants toddlers5
What types of activities support development in the PLACES Domains of infants & toddlers?
  • Social
    • Social Studies Activities
      • Attachment activities
      • Gentle touching
5 02 story time
5.02 Story Time
  • Before
  • During
  • After

Let’s look at closet door to review!

objective 6 01
Objective 6.01
  • Exemplify Developmentally Appropriate Activities in specific areas of learning for Children 3-8 year olds
    • Think about all the different centers in pre-k classes
      • All the lesson ideas and how they relate to each subject -- PLACES
objective 6 02
Objective 6.02
  • Evaluate developmentally appropriate programs for school-age children
environment
Environment
  • Relaxed, comfortable atmosphere; free of stress
  • Interesting learning centers
  • Developmentally appropriate materials
  • Indoor and outdoor areas
routines
Routines
  • Some predictable daily routines needed
  • Also need variety and choices
  • Balance between structured routines and the freedom of unstructured time
  • Routines planned for arrivals, planning time, meals and snacks, activities, rest time, departures
staff
Staff
  • Adult-child ratios to meet state requirements
  • Ideal: One care provider per ten children
  • Staff trained and experienced in working with school-age children
activities
Activities
  • Activities for all areas of development and for guiding behavior
  • Balance
    • Quiet vs. active
    • Indoor vs. outdoor
    • Large vs. small group activities
  • Help children with homework
  • Activities promote respect for cultural diversity
  • Activities that accommodate diverse groups with a range of ages represented
  • Community participation; clubs, teams, and special activities
what are the two types of guidance
What are the two types of guidance?
  • Direct
    • involving physical and verbal actions
  • Indirect
    • involving outside factors that influence behavior
what are some guides for communicating expectation
What are some guides for communicating expectation?
  • Model respect and acceptance
  • Encourage empathy and compassion
  • Encourage cooperation and teamwork
  • Insist on self-control
  • Communicate rules in an easy-to-understand way
safety goals
Safety Goals
  • Goals of safety policies
    • Supervise children at all times
    • Maintain minimum adult-child ratios
    • Provide a safe environment
knowing about ece history
Knowing about ECE History
  • Provides a sense of support and perspective
  • Serves as a source of inspiration
  • Helps teachers develop creative expression
  • Helps teachers develop better methods of teaching
  • Creates awareness and understanding of changes in education
  • Helps individuals get in touch with their own early childhood experiences
  • Helps individuals develop a philosophy of teaching

Copy what is underlined.

D - 9.01 - History

john locke
John Locke

Philosopher

1632-1704

  • Founder of modern educational philosophy
  • Theory based on scientific method, study of mind and learning
  • Believed that each child is born with a “clean slate” (tabula rasa) on which their experiences are written

Tabula rasa

D - 9.01 - History

friedrich froebel
Friedrich Froebel

1782 - 1852

  • Coined the word kindergarten
  • Started the first kindergarten in Germany in 1837
  • Emphasized teacher-directed learning
  • Advocated freedom, initiative, and relevant curriculum

"Father of the Kindergarten"

D - 9.01 - History

sigmund freud
Sigmund Freud

Id

Ego

Superego

1856-1939

Neurologist

Psychoanalyst

  • A child’s personality develops through a predictable pattern of psychosexual stages.
  • Many emotional and psychological problems of adults are connected to how their parents and care providers met their basic needs as children.

D - 9.01 - History

john dewey
John Dewey

1858 - 1952

  • First real American influence on American education
  • Founder of progressive movement
  • His theory = progressivism
  • Advocated child-centered learning in groups

Progressivist

D - 9.01 - History

margaret mcmillan
Margaret McMillan

1860 - 1931

  • Margaret and her sister Rachel extended concern beyond education to medical and dental care for children
  • Created open-air nursery in a slum
  • Developed the McMillan theory offresh air, sleep, and bathing

Pioneer

D - 9.01 - History

rudolph steiner
Rudolph Steiner

ART

1861 - 1925

  • Founded Waldorf Schools
  • Interdisciplinary, multi-sensory curriculum with emphasis on the arts
  • Emphasized the whole child; begin where the learner is.
  • Promoted self-regulation and self-discipline

Philosopher

Scientist

Artist

D - 9.01 - History

impact of kaiser child care centers
Impact ofKaiser Child Care Centers
  • Served over 3,000 children
  • Freed women to work during World War II
  • Provided a model for exemplary child care

D - 9.02 - Programs & Initiatives

impact of head start on ece
Impact ofHead Start on ECE
  • Services for low-income families
  • Comprehensive developmental services to over 10 million children
  • Now serving about 20% eligible low-income children
  • Burst of enthusiasm for programs for young children
  • Expanded enrollment in nursery school, kindergarten, and child care programs
  • National attention to the need for good care and educational experiences for children

D - 9.02 - Programs & Initiatives

impact of smart start on ece
Impact ofSmart Start on ECE
  • Made early childhood education accessible to children of all races, classes, cultures, and needs
  • Made child care affordable
  • Improved child health outcomes
  • Strengthened families
  • Used cutting-edge, innovative approaches for early learning

D - 9.02 - Programs & Initiatives

impact of no child left behind
Impact ofNo Child Left Behind
  • Provides accurate assessment of student performance
  • Provides children with effective development materials
  • Increases student and teacher accountability
  • Provides individualized and comprehensive reporting
  • Encourages parental involvement by providing at-home activities

D - 9.02 - Programs & Initiatives

impact of more at four
Impact of More at Four
  • Provides a high quality classroom-based educational program
  • Children served in a variety of settings:
    • public schools
    • for-profit and nonprofit child care
    • Head Start
    • Combination settings
  • Offers financial assistance
  • Serves a diverse group of children
  • Very detailed planning of program objectives for children

D - 9.02 - Programs & Initiatives

impact of 21 st century skills
Impact of 21st Century Skills
  • Provides expanded academic enrichment activities for children
  • Opportunities for students and their families to continue to learn new skills and discover abilities after school year has ended
  • Provides tutorial services
  • Provides art, music, and recreation programs
  • Helps children meet standards in reading and math

21st

D - 9.02 - Programs & Initiatives

1 societal trends
1. Societal trends
  • Those that relate to the activities and customs of human beings collectively
    • Increase in dual-career families
    • Increase in single parenting
    • Increasing mobility of population
    • Increasing need for child care
    • Increasingly diverse population
      • English as a second language (ESL)
      • Special populations
      • Cultural/religious differences
2 educational trends
2. Educational trends
  • Those that relate to the system for teaching and learning
    • Rising enrollment in private preschools
    • Increasing emphasis on early childhood education programs
    • Increasing need for teachers
    • Gradual decline in student enrollment
3 workplace trends
3. Workplace trends
  • Those that relate to the system within which people work
    • Increasing number of elderly in the workplace
    • Increase in entrepreneurships
    • More child care centers on work sites
    • More flexible work schedules and locations
    • Increased availability of family leave
slide81

Option A

Benefits of Going Straight to Work

  • Immediate employment
  • Feeling of accomplishment
  • Using skills before they are forgotten
  • Sense of independence

copy

D - 10.02 - Benefits & Liimitations

slide82

Option A

Limitations--- Going Straight to Work

  • Lower pay
  • Entry-level tasks
  • Minimum job benefits
  • Limited variety of jobs
  • Fewer opportunities for advancement
  • Interferes with further education

copy

D - 10.02 - Benefits & Liimitations

slide83

Option B

Benefits of Going to School

  • Financially rewarding careers
  • Opportunities for advancement
  • Manageable hours and working conditions
  • Professional status
  • Broad range of majors
  • Broad education base
  • Financial assistance available
  • Opportunities for continuing education

D - 10.02 - Benefits & Liimitations

slide84

Limitations--- Going to School

  • Greater initial cost
  • Longer time required to reach career goal
  • Entrance requirements
  • Competitive job market

D - 10.02 - Benefits & Liimitations