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CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT An Overview July 23, 2012. Prema Gaikwad. BASIC QUESTIONS IN EDUCATION. The Curriculum Cycle. Components of the Presentation. Curriculum as a Process and Product Curriculum Participants Curriculum Development Models Curriculum Designs.

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CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT An Overview July 23, 2012

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    1. CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENTAn OverviewJuly 23, 2012 Prema Gaikwad


    3. The Curriculum Cycle

    4. Components of the Presentation • Curriculum as a Process and Product • Curriculum Participants • Curriculum Development Models • Curriculum Designs

    5. A. Curriculum as a Process and Product

    6. Curriculum processes and products • May be found at two stages • Like a blue print and a building

    7. Processes Writing/Creating Curriculum Documents Similar to creating a Blue print Similar to constructing a building Instruction

    8. Products Curriculum Document Similar to a blue print Similar to a building Learning Outcomes

    9. Types of Curriculum Activities • Transform theory and knowledge into practice • Looking at the past, chart directions for future curriculum practices • Conduct research on curriculum issues • Write curriculum documents • Provide leadership to teachers • Teach • Evaluate curriculum

    10. Types of Curriculum Documents: Some Examples • Philosophy statements • Content standards documents • Curriculum frameworks • Teacher’s guide • Scope and sequence documents • Curriculum guides • Text books • Grade-level or course plans • Instructional units • Lesson plans

    11. B. Curriculum Participants

    12. Stakeholders • Who are they? • Why are they important? • How do you identify them? • How do you involve them? • What should be their roles/responsibilities? • What are the consequences for non-involvement?

    13. StakeholdersWho should you involve? • Those with formal power to make a decision • Those with power to block a decision • Those affected by the decision • Those with relevant information or expertise

    14. A List of Typical Stakeholders • Curriculum Specialists • Other Specialists • Administrators • Teachers • Parents • Students • Community Members • Faceless Members

    15. C. Curriculum Development Models

    16. TYLER’S CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT MODEL Based on his book, Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction)

    17. The Tyler Model • The nature & structure of knowledge • The needs of the society • The needs of the learner

    18. Fundamental Questions in Developing Curriculum 1.What educational purposes should the school seek to attain?

    19. Fundamental Questions in Developing Curriculum 2.What educational experiences can be provided that are likely to attain these purposes?

    20. Fundamental Questions in Developing Curriculum 3.How can these educational experiences be effectively organized?

    21. Fundamental Questions in Developing Curriculum 4.How can we determine whether and to what extent these purposes are being attained?

    22. Curriculum Development Process Philosophy of Education Goals & Aims General Instructional Objectives Specific Instructional Objectives & Outcomes Task Analysis & Content Selection Learning Activities

    23. Glatthorn’s Model School Board Citizens’ Curriculum Advisory Council Superintendent Curriculum Planning Council Principals Task Forces School Curriculum Council Curriculum Writers Instructional Planning Teams

    24. Hilda Taba’s Model An inductive model with five major steps

    25. Taba believed that those who teach the curriculum should be the ones to develop it. • The model uses a grass- roots approach

    26. Steps—Taba’s Model • Teacher prepares pilot teaching units • Diagnosis of needs • Formation of objectives • Selection of content • Organization of content • Selection of learning experiences • Organization of learning experiences • Evaluation

    27. Trying out of units (teaching) • Revising and consolidating • Developing curriculum guides • Installing and disseminating new units—in-service training

    28. D. CURRICULUM DESIGNS Design: Arrangement of the parts of the curriculum

    29. Four Components of a Design • Objectives • Content • Methods • Evaluation

    30. Two Organizational Dimensions • Horizontal • Scope—the “what” of the content or the breadth of the curriculum—concepts included in the curriculum • Integration—relationship of topics to each other, including topics in other subject areas

    31. Vertical • Sequence—the “when” of the content, the order in which concepts are arranged and taught; several ways of doing it: • Simple to complex • Familiar to unfamiliar • Concrete to abstract • Geographically near to far • Chronological • Part to whole • Whole to part

    32. Vertical • Continuity—planned repetitions of the content at successive levels; Jerome Bruner’s idea of “spiral curriculum”

    33. Other Design Terms • Articulation—connecting elements of horizontal and vertical aspects • Balance—The weight given to different content areas • Relevance—For immediate or remote use

    34. Three Types of Designs • Subject Centered Design • Student Centered Design • Society/Problem Centered Design

    35. Subject Centered Designs • Separate Subject Design • Curriculum is organized into various subject areas • Most popular • Convenient to prepare materials and teach • Familiar for teachers and parents • Assessment is easier • Disadvantage is in segmentation or separation of subjects

    36. Broad-fields Design • Also called interdisciplinary design • Variation of subject-centered to correct fragmentation • Integrate content that fit logically • Social science—geography, history, economics, etc. • General science—biology, chemistry, physics • Language arts—grammar, literature, spelling, composition • Becoming more popular • Disadvantage of superficial depth

    37. Correlation Design • Midpoint between separate subject design and broad-fields designs • Combines two or more subjects such as English literature and history; science and math • Identities of both are retained • Very few are using today • Difficult for scheduling • Rare to find experts in both areas at the same time

    38. Fusion Design • Combines two subject areas without retaining their identities • More recent trend • Examples—biophysics, genetic engineering

    39. Student-centered Designs • Child-centered • Mostly found in elementary levels • Integration through units of lessons—thematic instruction

    40. Humanistic Designs • Building blocks of curriculum—list of characteristics • Accepting self, others, & nature • Possess spontaneity, simplicity • Openness to different experiences • Possession of empathy • Developing decision making

    41. Humanistic Designs • Examples of schools: Waldorf, Sudbury • Adventist schools are also designedprimarily for character development

    42. Core Curriculum Designs • Required of all students • Emphasis on social social needs • Mainly used in middle school and high school levels

    43. Society/Problem Centered Design • Activities or experience curriculum • Emphasizes social skills • Involves students directly in solving problems in society • Needs of Society Curriculum • Emphasizes vocational and career training • Instruction in the school caters for adult world of work

    44. An Example of a School Curriculum Framework