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Modals part 2

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Modals part 2

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  1. Modals part 2 Unit 7 Grammar Forms & Functions 3

  2. Shall, Let’s, How About, What About, Why Don’t, Could, Can = Make Suggestions • All these are suggestions made by questions EXCEPT “Let’s” • “Why don’t” can be a normal question OR a suggestion • “Could” and “can” are sometimes suggestions. “Could” is more polite than “can” • “Let’s” and “let us” can mean that the speaker expects the listener to agree – “Let us” is more formal than “let’s”

  3. Verbs followed by infinitives Click on the correct sentence. Incorrect. Need a question mark because this suggestion is in the form of a question. A. Shall we leave now. B. Shall we leave now? Correct. Need a question mark because this suggestion is in the form of a question. C. Both are correct. Incorrect. Try again. Incorrect. Use a noun or gerund after “how about” or “what about.” A. How about go to dinner now? B. How about going to dinner now? Correct. Use a noun or gerund after “how about” or “what about.” C. Both are correct. Incorrect. Try again. A. We can leave now if you like? Both are correct. “If you like” and “maybe” help indicate suggestions – soften the statement. B. Maybe we can leave now? Both are correct. “If you like” and “maybe” help indicate suggestions – soften the statement. C. Both are correct. Correct. See explanations. Click to go to next slide.

  4. Prefer, Would Prefer = Express preferences • Objects of “prefer” or “would prefer” can be nouns, gerunds, or infinitives. • “To + Object” is optional if both speakers understand what the second object is. • If the first object is an infinitive, do not add “to + object.” • Can use “than + another infinitive” instead • I prefer to go to the movies than to rent videos.

  5. Verbs followed by infinitives Click on the correct sentence. Incorrect. Use “than + infinitive” after an infinitive after “prefers.” A. Mike prefers to go rock climbing to surfing. B. Mike prefers to go rock climbing than to surf. Correct. Use “than + infinitive” after an infinitive after “prefers.” C. Both are correct. Incorrect. Try again. Correct. Since “television” is a noun object, not a gerund, it should be followed by “to” + noun object. A. I prefer television to movies. B. I prefer television to going to movies. Incorrect. This is not a balanced sentence. Since “television” is a noun object, not a gerund, it should be followed by “to” + noun object. C. Both are correct. Incorrect. Try again. A. They would prefer to fish to hike. Incorrect. The infinitive“to fish” follows “would prefer;” therefore, it should be followed by “than + infinitive.” B. They would prefer fishing to hiking. Correct. The gerund “fishing” follows “would prefer” and is followed by “to” + the gerund “hiking.” C. Both are correct. Incorrect. Try again. Click to go to next slide.

  6. Would Rather = Express preferences • Usually use “prefer” for general statements. • Usually use “would prefer” or “would rather” for specific choices • Refuse an offer by saying “I’d rather not” NOT “I wouldn’t rather.” • These are comparison statements also.

  7. Verbs followed by infinitives Click on the correct sentence. Both are correct. The second object can be dropped if the speaker understands the context. A. Would you rather have juice? Both are correct. The second object can be dropped if the speaker understands the context. B. Would you rather have juice or water? C. Both are correct. Correct. See explanations. Incorrect. If you use “not,” do not use a second object of comparison. A. I’d rather not go to San Bernardino than stay home. B. I’d rather not go to San Bernardino. Correct. If you use “not,” do not use a second object of comparison. C. Both are correct. Incorrect. Try again. A. Bob would rather eat fish than tofu. Both are correct. The base verb can be repeated between the “than + object.” B. Bob would rather eat fish than eat tofu. Both are correct. The base verb can be repeated between the “than + object.” Correct. See explanations. C. Both are correct. Click to go to next slide.

  8. May, Could, Can = Ask Permission • Example, “Could I check this book out?” “May I use your phone?” • “May” and “Could” are more polite than “Can” • “Please” usually goes after the subject or at the end of the sentence. • Example: “Could I please borrow the car?” “Could I borrow the car, please?” • “Could” for permission is present or future tense – for ability it is past tense • When ask permission with “Could,” the short answer uses “may” or “can.” • Example: “Could I borrow your dictionary?” “Yes, you can.” • Can answer with phrases like “Sure,” “No problem,” and other informal sayings. • If refusing permission, then usually offer an apology or explanation. • Example: “May I sit here?” “I’m sorry, but I’m saving this seat for my friend.”

  9. Verbs followed by infinitives Click on the correct sentence. Correct. Do not answer “could” permission questions with “yes, you could.” A. “Could I borrow a pen?” “Yes, you may.” Incorrect. Do not answer “could” permission questions with “yes, you could.” B. “Could I borrow a pen?” “Yes, you could.” C. Both are correct. Incorrect. Try again. Incorrect. The base verb comes after the subject – permission word + subject + verb. A. Can I your dictionary borrow? B. Can I borrow your dictionary? Correct. The base verb comes after the subject – permission word + subject + verb. C. Both are correct. Incorrect. Try again. A. May I please borrow a couple of dollars? Correct. “Please” usually goes after the subject or at the end of the sentence. B. May please I borrow a couple of dollars? Incorrect. “Please” usually goes after the subject or at the end of the sentence. C. Both are correct. Incorrect. Try again. Click to go to next slide.

  10. Will, Can, Could, Would, Would you mind = Make Requests • “Would” and “Could” more polite than “will” and “can” • Can add “please” • Usually give an explanation if you refuse a polite request • “Would you mind” • Negative answer means you will do what they want • Positive answer means you are not willing to do it

  11. Verbs followed by infinitives Click on the correct sentence. Both are correct. “Please” can go at the end of the sentence or after the subject. A. Would you answer these letters for me, please? Both are correct. “Please” can go at the end of the sentence or after the subject. B. Would you please answer these letters for me? C. Both are correct. Correct. See explanations. Incorrect. Negative answers to “would you mind” mean that you are willing to do something. A. “Would you mind waiting?” “Yes, I’m happy too.” B. “Would you mind waiting?” “No, I’m happy too.” Correct. Negative answers to “would you mind” mean that you are willing to do something. C. Both are correct. Incorrect. Try again. A. Can you my mother pick up at the airport? Incorrect. The verb goes after the subject. B. Can you pick up my mother at the airport? Correct. The verb goes after the subject. Incorrect. Try again. C. Both are correct. Click to go to next slide.

  12. May, Might, Could = Express Possibility • Do not contract “may not” or “might not” when talking about possibility • When “could” is talking about present possibility, it is not negative. • Yes/No questions about possibility use “could” – not “may” or “might” • “May” or “Might” can be answers to questions • “Maybe” is an adverb used at the beginning of sentences • “May” + “be” is a modal (may) + verb (be) • Use modal + “have” + past participle for past tense • Example: He might have been there yesterday. • Be sure to not write “might’ve,” “could’ve” or “may’ve” as “might of,” “could of,” or “may of”

  13. Verbs followed by infinitives Click on the correct sentence. Correct. Do not use “could of” instead of “could have.” A. There could have been a bad accident. Incorrect. Do not use “could of” instead of “could have.” B. There could of been a bad accident. C. Both are correct. Incorrect. Try again. Correct. Modal comes between the subject and verb. A. I may not need an umbrella today. B. May not I need an umbrella today. Incorrect. Modal comes between the subject and verb. C. Both are correct. Incorrect. Try again. A. You couldn’t have seen Mary yesterday. Correct. Need the past participle after “have.” B. You couldn’t have see Mary yesterday. Incorrect. Need the past participle after “have.” C. Both are correct. Incorrect. Try again. Click to go to next slide.

  14. Should, Ought to = Express Probability • I will be there. 100% sure • I should be there. 90% sure • I ought to be there. 90% sure • “Should” and “Ought to” are present and future tense • Use the perfect modal form when something will probably happen, but don’t know for sure. • Example: Their plane should have landed by now. • Also use perfect modal form for something you expect to happen that hasn’t happened yet

  15. Verbs followed by infinitives Click on the correct sentence. A. He should have passed his driving test. Correct. Do not use “should of” instead of “should have.” Incorrect. Do not use “should of” instead of “should have.” B. He should of passed his driving test. C. Both are correct. Incorrect. Try again. Incorrect. Use the perfect modal for the past tense. A. Maria should be at work yesterday. B. Maria should have been at work yesterday. Correct. Use the perfect modal for the past tense. Incorrect. Try again. C. Both are correct. A. I will able to go to the party on Saturday. Incorrect. Need a base verb after the modal. B. I will be able to go to the party on Saturday. Correct. Need a base verb after the modal. Incorrect. Try again. C. Both are correct. Click to go to next slide.

  16. Must, Must Not, Can’t = Make Deductions • Use both “must” and “must not” for deductions • Use “can’t” but not “can” for deductions • “Must not” & “Must” when almost 100% sure • “Can’t” when we are 100% sure • Example: Shirley missed class. She must not be feeling well. • Example: We had lunch half an hour ago. You can’t be hungry already. • Use perfect modal form for past tense • Use “couldn’t have” in addition to “can’t have”

  17. Verbs followed by infinitives Click on the correct sentence. Both are correct. But “couldn’t have” is more common than “can’t have.” A. She can’t have finished yet. Both are correct. But “couldn’t have” is more common than “can’t have.” B. She couldn’t have finished yet. Correct. See explanations. C. Both are correct. Correct. Need the past participle after “have.” A. They must not have stopped to eat because they got here early. B. They must not have stop to eat because they got here early. Incorrect. Need the past participle after “have.” C. Both are correct. Incorrect. Try again. A. Dana know must LA very well since she has lived here so long. Incorrect. Need a base verb after the modal. B. Dana must know LA very well since she has lived here so long. Correct. Need a base verb after the modal. Incorrect. Try again. C. Both are correct. Click to go to next slide.

  18. Progressive and Perfect Progressive Modals

  19. Verbs followed by infinitives Click on the correct sentence. Correct. Modal comes before the subject in questions. A. Why should Joe have been home early? Incorrect. Modal comes before the subject in questions. B. Why Joe should have been home early? C. Both are correct. Incorrect. Try again. Correct. Need “have been.” A. They must have been having an argument. B. They must have having an argument. Incorrect. Need “have been.” C. Both are correct. Incorrect. Try again. A. He could waiting for someone. Incorrect. Need “be” between the modal and the progressive verb. B. He could be waiting for someone. Correct. Need “be” between the modal and the progressive verb. Incorrect. Try again. C. Both are correct. Click to end show.