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Now Prosperity: You will never know how much it cost us to preserve your freedom; I hope that you will make a good use of it. If you do not, I shall repent in heaven that I took half the pains to preserve it. -John Adams. Critical Period: 1781-1789. Impact of Revolution Republicanism

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Now Prosperity:

You will never know how much it cost us to preserve your freedom; I hope that you will make a good use of it. If you do not, I shall repent in heaven that I took half the pains to preserve it.

-John Adams

critical period 1781 1789

Critical Period: 1781-1789

Impact of Revolution


Representative Gov’t

Northwest Ordinance

Articles of Confederation

Federalists and anti-Federalists

the treaty of paris 1783
The Treaty of Paris: 1783
  • Cornwallis’s defeat at Yorktown heavy blow to Tories in Parliament
  • War was increasingly unpopular in England
    • Financially detrimental to British gov’t
  • Lord North & other Tories resigned
  • Whig leaders replaced Tories and sought ways to end war
  • Treaty of Paris: Provisions
    • Britain would recognize U.S. as independent nation
    • Mississippi River would be western boundary of U.S.
    • Americans would have fishing rights off the coast of Canada
    • Americans would pay debts owed to British merchants and honor Loyalist claims for property confiscation
representative democracy
Representative Democracy
  • Also referred to as a republic
  • Concept: Republicanism
  • Government authority comes from the people who elect officials that represent their interests
  • Promoted the end of slavery, encouraged education and sacrifice for the public good
  • 13 colonies had a tradition of governing themselves…..
  • Elected their own representative law making bodies
  • Passed laws to keep peace within their communities.
  • Colonies had a tradition of representative democracy
state constitutions state gov ts
State Constitutions & State Gov’ts
  • Common aspects
    • Each state listed the basic rights and freedoms that belonged to all citizens
      • “unalienable rights”
      • i.e. jury trial and freedom of religion
    • Separation of powers
      • Legislative powers to an elected two-house legislature
      • Executive powers to an elected governor
      • Judicial powers to a system of courts
    • All white males with property could vote
      • Based on the assumption that property-owners had a larger stake in government than did the poor and property-less
      • Elected officials higher qualifications than the voters
women s suffrage
Women’s Suffrage
  • Abigail Adams—1790’to early 1800’s
  • Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony---1830’s to 1900’s
  • Women’s rights reformers
    • citizenship
    • right to vote
    • education
  • Supported the abolition of slavery
  • Republican motherhood
  • Despite their contributions, women’s rights did not progress and would remain 2nd class citizens
abolishment of slavery
Abolishment of Slavery
  • New England states are the first to abolish slavery after the Revolution.
  • Middle States would abolish later….
    • In 1791, the Quakers formed first Anti-Slavery Society and Underground Railroad
  • Southern States would expand slavery after the invention of the cotton gin.
  • As country expands, North and South would compromise over the issue of slavery……

Mason Dixon Line set the precedent over dividing the country over slavery.

  • Ohio River would be the dividing boundary between North and South.
articles of confederation
Articles of Confederation
  • Background:
  • John Dickinson drafted first constitution for the United States as a nation (1776)
  • Congress wanted to protect the rights of individual states- did not want to grant overriding power to federal gov’t
  • Articles of Confederation was adopted in 1777- submitted to states for ratification
  • Ratification:
  • Ratification delayed by land disputes west of Alleghenies
  • Rhode Island & Maryland insisted new lands be placed under central gov’t authority
  • Virginia & New York gave up claims to lands in the west
  • When they did- Articles were ratified (1781)

Articles Continued

  • Structure of Gov’t:
  • Central government w/ one body- a congress
  • Uni-cameral legislation: each state given one vote
  • 9 out of 13 votes needed to pass laws
  • Unanimous votes needed to amend laws
  • Powers:
  • Congress had power to:
  • a. wage war
  • b. make treaties
  • c. borrow money
  • 2. Powers NOT given to Congress:
  • a. power to regulate trade
  • b. power to tax (to finance any decision, Congress had to rely on states for money)
  • c. no executive power to enforce its laws

Articles and Accomplishment

  • Northwest Ordinance: 1787
  • Encouraged settlers to form townships.
  • New states formed would be equal to original 13
  • Influx of settlers causes violence with Indians
  • Guaranteed settlers “unalienable rights”
  • Winning the war
  • a. can claim some credit for ultimate victory of Washington’s forces
  • 2. Land Ordinance of 1785:
  • a. Congress established policy for surveying and selling western lands
  • b. one section in each township set aside for education
  • 3. Northwest Ordinance of 1787:
  • a. large territory between Great Lakes & Ohio River
  • b. Ordinance (laws) for creating new states
  • c. Limited self-gov’t given to developing territories
  • i. slavery abolished in the region

Grid system was created by Thomas Jefferson…

  • Structured and organized land policy
  • Allowed for a peaceful purchase of land.
  • Promoted an orderly expansion westward..
  • Confederation Congress convinced states who claimed land out west to cede their land to the US Govt.
  • US Govt. was to come up with a fair and reasonable land policy…..Unlike the Proclamation of 1763….

Land Ordinance: 1785

weaknesses of articles
Weaknesses of Articles
  • Financial:
    • Most war debts unpaid
    • States & Congress issued paper money (worthless)
    • Congress had no taxing power
    • States could only request state donations
  • Foreign:
    • Other nations had little respect for new nation
    • U.S. couldn’t defend itself or pay debts
    • Spain & Britain threatened U.S. interests in West (Confederation to weak to defend its interests)
  • Domestic:
    • Shay’s Rebellion
    • U.S. gov’t lacked the ability to quell rebellion

U.S. owed France & Spain

Individual states owed money to citizens who loaned $ to states

U.S. Gov’t owed soldier’s for fighting in war; debts to Loyalists & British


American Imports & Exports w/ Britain: 1783-1789

** What conclusions can we make about the economic plan inherent in the Article of Confederation?


States held more power than the national gov’t: states couldn’t tax, regulate trade or enforce its laws


States feared authoritative power like that in England

why a constitution was needed
Why a Constitution was Needed
  • Articles weakened central authority
  • AOC hand-cuffed gov’t from acting decisively
  • AOC did not protect: Life, Liberty and Pursuit of Happiness
  • States held too much power: if rebellion and revolt broke out in states, who’s authority is it to stop it?
    • Shay’s Rebellion forced Founding Fathers to realize AOC were too weak
annapolis convention 1786
Annapolis Convention (1786)
  • George Washington hosted a conference at his home in Mt. Vernon, VA (1785)
  • Representatives agreed that the problems were serious enough to hold further discussions at a later meeting at Annapolis, MD, at which all the states might be represented
  • Only 5 states sent delegates
  • Alexander Hamilton and James Madison persuaded the others to call for a Constitutional Convention, to be held in Philadelphia for the purpose of revising the Articles of Confederation
convention delegates 1787
Convention Delegates (1787)
  • 55 white male delegate went to Philly
  • Most college-educated, early 40s
  • Wealthier than the average citizen
  • Many were practicing lawyers and/or helped in drafting state constitutions
  • Elected a presiding officer: George Washington
  • James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, Governor Morris, John Dickinson were notable delegates (different ideas of central power- all sought to make stronger gov’t though)
  • Notable absences: Jefferson, John Jay, John Adams, Thomas Paine, Sam Adams and John Hancock
  • Patrick Henry opposed any growth in Federal power; refused to take part
federalists anti federalists
Federalists & anti-Federalists
  • You will read from Federalist No. Ten written by James Madison in which he defends the need for a large Republic to counter the influence of large majority factions.
    • Annotate and answer the questions found on the handout
    • Before reading Federalist #10, read from the excerpt below:
  • Read excerpt (pages 40-41) from AMSCO:
    • Break down the differences between Federalists and anti-Federalists
    • Be ready to discuss tomorrow…