Joint Operation Planning Process: Joint Forces Staff College National Defense University
Lesson Objectives • Describe the purpose of Joint Operational Planning • Name the steps in the Joint Operational Planning Process • Describe inputs and outputs of the Joint Operational Planning Process
JOPP Basics • Receive and analyze required tasks. • Review and refine threat situation. • Develop and compare alternative courses of action. • Select the best course of action. • Submit and gain concept approval. • Prepare a plan based on approved concept. • Complete the planning document.
THE JOINT OPERATION PLANNING PROCESS Step 1: Initiation Step 2: Mission Analysis Step 3: Course of Action (COA) Development Step 4: COA Analysis and Wargaming Step 5: COA Comparison Step 6: COA Approval Step 7: Plan or Order Development Strategic Guidance Common to all joint organizations at any level Concept Development Plan Development
Mission Analysis Step 2 JP 5.0 Joint Operation Planning Aug 2011
Mission Analysis • From the Broad, General Assigned Task, the CCdr Conducts Mission Analysis by Identifying--- • Specified Tasks- Actions He Has Been Tasked to Conduct in Other Documents Such As Defense Agreements, Directives From CJCS, Etc. • Implied Tasks- Actions That Are Deduced From Analysis of the Assigned and Specified Tasks. • Essential Tasks- Actions That Are Absolutely Necessary, Indispensable, or Critical to the Success of a Mission.
Types of Forces Assigned Forces Apportioned Forces Allocated Forces Global Force Management
Course of Action (COA) Development Step 3 JP 5.0 Joint Operation Planning Aug 2011
Elements of a Course of Action Who --(what forces) will execute it? What -- type of action is contemplated? When -- is it to begin? Where --will it take place? How --will it be accomplished?
Course of Action Tests Adequate - does it accomplish mission? Feasible - use only the resources apportioned? Acceptable - worth the possible costs? Distinguishable - meaningfully different? Complete - does it answer who, what, when, where, how?
Course of Action Analysis & Wargaming Step 4 JP 5.0 Joint Operation Planning Aug 2011
Staff Estimates 1 Mission 2. The situation and courses of action 3. Analysis of opposing courses of action 4. Comparison of own courses of action 5. Decision STAFF ESTIMATES J-6 ESTIMATE J-1 ESTIMATE J-2 ESTIMATE J-3 ESTIMATE J-4 ESTIMATE INTELLIGENCE OPERATIONS LOGISTICS PERSONNEL C4 Supporting Cmds Components
Course of Action Comparison Step 5 JP 5.0 Joint Operation Planning Aug 2011
Comparing COAs Advantages Disadvantages COA 1 COA 2 Bullets or narrative Bullets or narrative COA 1 COA 2 Criteria Weight Rating Product Rating Product Attack COGs 1 1 2 2 Flexibility 2 1 2 2 4 6 3
Course of Action Approval Step 6 JP 5.0 Joint Operation Planning Aug 2011
Plan or Order Development Step 7 Flesh and Publish JP 5.0 Joint Operation Planning Aug 2011
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Crisis Action Planning Process OPORD Cdr’s Estimate Crisis Assessment Plan Development Execution Planning COA Development Situation Development Combatant Command Pres SecDef CJCS CoCom HQ Planning Order Execute Order Alert Order Deployment Order Warning Order Situational Awareness Major Crisis Planning Selected COA Conduct Operation Execution
What is a crisis? “An incident or situation involving a threat to the United States, its territories, citizens, military forces, and possessions or vital interests that develops rapidly and creates a condition of such diplomatic, economic, political, or military importance that commitment of US military forces and resources is contemplated to achievenational objectives.” - JOPES Vol. I, Sep 2006 JFSC / JCWS
THE JOINT OPERATION PLANNING PROCESS Same Analytical Process for Both CAP and Contingency Planning Step 1: Initiation Step 2: Mission Analysis Step 3: Course of Action (COA) Development Step 4: COA Analysis and Wargaming Step 5: COA Comparison Step 6: COA Approval Step 7: Plan or Order Development JIPOE Strategic Guidance *Warning order Concept Development Plan Development *Planning / Alert Order *CAP Specific
Planning Detail • Level 1: COAs outlined • Level 2: CONOPS w/o annexes • Level 3: shortened OPLAN • Level 4: full detailed plan Joint Operation Planning Products • Products • COMMANDER’S ESTIMATE • BASE PLAN • CONCEPT PLAN (CONPLAN) • OPERATION PLAN (OPLAN) • WARNING ORDER • PLANNING ORDER • ALERT ORDER • OPERATION ORDER • EXECUTE ORDER • FRAGMENTARY ORDER • DEPLOYMENT ORDER