The rural youth in Catalonia (Spain) Gemma Estany Laia Espasa U do 2: Youth’s role in integrated rural development (IRD), 1-3 March 2011, Nurmijärvi, Finland
Summary • Catalonia: Somegeographical data • Whatis ARCA? • Youthissues in Catalonia • Catalanyouthpolicies • CharacterisingtheCatalanyouth • Rural youthmigrations • ODYSSEUS project
1. Somegeographical data Population density (2008) MAIN FEATURES • Catalonia is one of the 17 autonomous communities of Spain. • Surface: 32.107 Km2 (6,3% of the Spanish surface) • Population (2011): 7.442.420 inhabitants • Total population density: 232 inhab./Km2 Catalonia is the second most populated region in Spain. Source: IDESCAT
1. Somegeographical data • Organization: Catalonia is divided into four administrative regions • There are at present 946 municipalities in Catalonia • Climate: Principally Mediterranean climate. The inland part show continental Mediterranean climate • Official Languages: • Catalan • Spanish • Aranese (Occitan) Girona Lleida Barcelona Tarragona
1. Somegeographical data Rurality according to the OCDE RURAL AREAS • Surface: 66% of the total • Population: 595.393 inhab. • Population density: 19,8 inhab./km2 • 51,8% of its municipalities Source: IDESCAT
1. Somegeographical data • Forest land and agricultural land are 43,9% and 35,5%. • Natura 2000 Network is 29,83% of the territory; which includes 10,6% of agricultural land and 39% of forest land. • The agrarian rate of employment is low: 1,9%. • The Catalan agroindustry is the first sales sector at national level and represents the 13,1% (2007) of the total employment. • Primary sector production:
1. Somegeographical data RURAL AREAS • Agrarian sector is loosing economic and social weight. • Strong development of the tourist sector which has led to a dependence on the construction sector. • Deficiencies in accessibility to basic services and terrestrial communications network. • Chronic demographic crisis in small municipalities.
1. Somegeographical data RURAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME CATALONIA (2007-2013) • Rural development is not applied at all levels. • Rural development policies are linked mostly to the agricultural sector. • The economic diversification has been specially oriented to rural tourism which has saturated the sector in some areas.
3. Whatis ARCA? • Associació d’Iniciatives Rurals de Catalunya (ARCA) • Since 2010, ARCA is the regional network of Local Action Groups (LAG) in Catalonia (Spain). • 13 LAGs (2007-2013) • ARCA structures its action in 4 axis: • Technical service to support LAG • groups; • Communication and spreading of • projects, good practice and methodology; • Representation in other organizations • and institutions; • Participation in rural development • projects of regional interest.
4. Youthissues in Catalonia CATALAN YOUTH POLICIES • The Catalan Government has full competences on youth issues. • The National Youth Plan of Catalonia (2010-2020) is the general methodological framework. • Each municipality elaborates its own Local Youth Plan at municipal level.
4. Youthissues in Catalonia • 7 Challenges: • Education • Employment • Home transition • Health • Personal development and associativism • Culture • Social and territorial cohesion
4. Youthissues in Catalonia CATALAN YOUTH POLICIES • The Catalan Government has full competences on youth issues. • The National Youth Plan of Catalonia (2010-2020) is the general methodological framework. • Each municipality elaborates its own Local Youth Plan at municipal level. • Last NYP (2000-2010) • empowered the social networks, • promoted associativism and youth • entrenchment.
4. Youthissues in Catalonia CHARACTERISING THE CATALAN YOUTH • Housing • Only 30,2% of youth between 16-29 years are emancipated high rents and precarious work and job insecurity. • General priority of buying than renting a residence. Only 27,5% of the emancipated young (20-34 years) are renting. • Specific difficulties in rural areas: • Less renting residences. • Increased price of residencesdue to tourism. • Strict urban plans which not allow urban growth in some rural municipalities.
4. Youthissues in Catalonia CHARACTERISING THE CATALAN YOUTH • Education • General increase of youth aged between 25-34 years with university qualifications (39,2%, 2008), specially women in rural areas. • Less educational sources in rural areas (specially for higher education). Over qualification of youth between 16-29 years and population over 29 years (2000-2009) 16-29 years > 29 years
4. Youthissues in Catalonia CHARACTERISING THE CATALAN YOUTH • Employment • The ratio of unemployment among young people aged between 16 and 29 (37,1%) is the double than the unemployment among the rest of the population (18%), specially for women. Rate of unemployment, 15-24 years (2000-2009)
4. Youthissues in Catalonia CHARACTERISING THE CATALAN YOUTH • Employment • Precarious work and job insecurity specially for women, immigrants and early graduated. • Lack of qualified jobs in rural areas. Area of professional activity of youth (24-29 years, 2006):
4. Youthissues in Catalonia CHARACTERISING THE CATALAN YOUTH • Leisure • Barcelona city as the main attractor for leisure activities. • Demand of leisure activities in rural areas. • Associativism • Low participation, specially in urban areas. • Less participation of the youngest (<20 years). • Mobility • Particularly rural youth suffer the need of mobility because education, labour and leisure activities. • Generalised use of private transport.
4. Youthissues in Catalonia RURAL YOUTH MIGRATIONS Outflow • Graduated rural youth remains in urban and peri-urban areas where they have studied. • Basically due to the lack of educative sources and jobs, problems to find a residence and the need to explore the outside world. • “Neorurals”: coming from urban areas, specially young families. • Immigrants. • Returned youth. Inflow
5. Odysseusproject ODYSSEUS. Programme for the return and labour integration of rural youth Main goal: Prevent and stop rural youth exodus to urban and peri-urban areas by creating a programme which favours work placement of young rurals and their commitment to their original rural areas. The programme wants to take action involving the principal stakeholders who influence this transition (universities and enterprises) and to raise awareness about the effects and impacts of youth migration in rural areas. Target group: Young people, especially with rural origins and studying in higher education, between the age groups of 18 to 35 years.
5. Odysseusproject ODYSSEUS. Programme for the return and labour integration of rural youth • First stage: Construction of the model • Analysis and diagnosis • Characterising rural youth and rural areas (detection of most vulnerable areas) • Business in rural areas and detection of potentialities for youth • Rural youth migrations • Other factors which influence youth migrations • Methodology design 2011
5. Odysseusproject ODYSSEUS. Programme for the return and labour integration of rural youth From 2012 • Second stage: Implementation • Higher education centres • Rural areas enterprises and entrepreneurship nodes • Network of stakeholders • Awareness actions about youth migration We look for partners!
Thank you for your attention! ARCA Associació d’Iniciatives Rurals de Catalunya