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The Invasion of America. 1400’s-1607. Preexisting Societies. Complex network of indigenous people As many as 15 million inhabitants Spoke as many as 300 different languages Highly developed civilizations Divisions of labor Complex trade networks

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Preexisting Societies

Complex network of indigenous people

As many as 15 million inhabitants

Spoke as many as 300 different languages

Highly developed civilizations

Divisions of labor

Complex trade networks

Cultural development rivaled Europeans

Some were even socially stratified

Decimated by European settlement


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15th Century Europe

Dominance of the Catholic Church

Feudal System

Divine Right of Kings

National Competition


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Emerging merchant class

Trade did not fit feudal system

Merchants were a major source of tax revenue (tariffs)

Taxes supported exploration, colonialism, and war

Methods of Change


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Methods of Change

Crusades

State supported, church sanctioned exploration

Briefly opened possibility of trade

Shook power of church and nobility


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Methods of Change

Reformation

Inspired by the Renaissance

1517 Martin Luther

Gutenberg Bible

Formation of Anglican Church (Henry VIII)

Sub movements (Puritans/Quakers)


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Methods of Change

Commerce and Exploration

Increased ship technology (caravel)

Nation states needed wealth (hard currency)

Fund wars (round robin power struggle)

Policy of Mercantilism: Primary reason for colonialism is to increase wealth of home country. Supply raw materials and avoid trade with rivals

Joint Stock Companies

Made long range trade possible

Forerunner of corporations

Initially operated with royal charters


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Age of Exploration

First colonization of New World (N./S. America)

Spain

Portugal

Columbian exchange

Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)

Settle disputes between Spain and Portugal

AKA Papal Line of Demarcation

England ignored treaty

Spanish explorers initially the most succesful

Columbus/Cortes/Pizarro


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Age of Exploration

Rivalry established

Portugal (Brazil)

Spain

Florida/Caribbean/Modern Latin America

By far the early leader in New World

France

Attempt to colonize Florida/Southern US

Major colony: Quebec 1608

Dutch

New Netherlands (New York/New Jersey)

England


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English Settlements

Become modern United States

Major settlements

Roanoake 1587 (failed)

Jamestown 1607

Plymouth 1620

Massachusetts Bay 1630 (Winthrop)

England will eventually become dominant power in Europe/New World