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Sustainable Infrastructure Development in Developing Countries

Sustainable Infrastructure Development in Developing Countries

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Sustainable Infrastructure Development in Developing Countries

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  1. Sustainable Infrastructure Development in Developing Countries Love Ekenberg Dept. of Information Technology and Media, Mid Sweden University and Dept. of Computer and Systems Sciences Stockholm University and KTH SWEDEN CEENet 2002

  2. Basic Idea • A sound foundation in computers and access to the Internet has become essential for modern higher education and research. CEENet 2002

  3. Scope and Support • DSV unit for development co-operation is a section within Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University. • The scope of co-operation is the enhancement of information Technology (IT) in Sri Lanka, Vietnam, Mozambique and Tanzania by investment in appropriate electronic infrastructure, and competence development of IT professionals. • The funding for the first round is approx. USD 7M. CEENet 2002

  4. Projects Participants Joint projects between • Sida-SAREC • Ministries, IT Institutes and university departments in Sri Lanka, Mozambique, Tanzania, Ethiopia and Vietnam • Dept. of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University • Other Swedish Universities CEENet 2002

  5. The Programs • The development of an electronic infrastructure for: • universities in Sri Lanka including the Lanka Educational and Research Network responsible for interconnecting Educational and R & D Institutions across the country. • Eduardo Mondlane University, Mozambique • Dar es Salaam University, Tanzania • Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia • Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment, Vietnam • Split PhD Programs CEENet 2002

  6. Split PhD Program (6+6)/12 • The split Ph.D. programs have provided for 24 split Ph.D.s in the field of Information Technology. • By the end of 1999 8 Ph.D. Students from the Universities of Colombo, Moratuwa, Ruhuna and Peradeniya had commenced work. • During 2001 12 Ph.D. Students from Mozambique and Tanzania commenced their PhD studies. • In 2002 2 Ph.D. Students from Vietnam have commenced their PhD studies. CEENet 2002

  7. First Objectives • Operate and maintain campus wide and national networks. • Deploy applications such as distance education and library functions based on the networks. • Build and maintain a network management unit to support networking activities in the Research and Education sector. CEENet 2002

  8. Ultimate Objectives • Connect all of the Universities in the countries to national networks. • Provide internet connectivity to all universities and major research Institutes. • Obtain sufficient international bandwidth to support the academic activities of the staff and students of the universities and research institutes. • Expand campus wide networking in other Universities. • Operate and maintain the campus wide networks. • Deploy applications such as distance education and library functions based on the networks. • Build and maintain a network management unit to support networking activities in the Research and Education sector. CEENet 2002

  9. Sri Lanka Sri Lanka is the first country where Sida supported ICT projects in a substantial way. Inspired by former positive results of earlier minor project for the development of science and technology, the present project was commenced in 1998. CEENet 2002

  10. Sri Lanka Most universities in Sri Lanka have very few senior staff members (with PhDs) in their Computer Science and ICT departments. Very few are involved in R&D. CEENet 2002

  11. Sri Lanka: Some Basic Facts • POPULATION: 18.5 million • URBAN POPULATION: 24% • ADULT LITERACY: 91.8% • GNP (per capita): US$833 • LIFE EXPECTANCY 72.5 years • INFANT MORTALITY 17 per 1000 /live births • LANGUAGES: SINHALESE, TAMIL, ENGLISH • ETHNIC GROUPS: • Singhalese 74.0% Tamils 18.1% Moors 7.1% Others 0.8% • RELIGIOUS GROUPS: • Buddhists 69.3% Hindus 15.5% Muslims 7.5% • Christians 7.6% Others 0.1% • AREA: 65,610 sq.km CEENet 2002

  12. Sri Lanka: Some Basic FactsSource: PROF. V. K. SAMARANAYAKE, CINTEC • TELECOM SERVICES • SLT 600,000 (MONOPOLY) DENSITY = 30/K • WLL 100,000 • CELLULAR 200,000 • DATA COM 25,000 • PAGING 10,000 • PAY PHONE 5,000 • COMPUTERS 200,000 DENSITY = 10/K • INTERNET • ISPs 20 • .lk HOSTS 1,000 • SUBSCRIBERS 50,000 • TELEVISION DENSITY = 85/K CEENet 2002

  13. Present Telecom SituationSource: PROF. V. K. SAMARANAYAKE, CINTEC • SRI LANKA TELECOM PRIVATISED WITH 35% SHARE SOLD TO NTT OF JAPAN IN 1997 • TWO PRIVATE WLL PROVIDERS • FOUR CELLULAR SERVICES • FOUR PAGING SERVICES • FIVE PAY PHONE OPERATORS • NINE DATA COM SERVICES • ONE MOBILE TRUNCKING OPERATOR • SE-ME-WEE II & III AND SATELLITE LINKS • 20 ISP's, 50,000 INTERNET USERS • SLT MONOPOLY ONLY ON INTL. VOICE TILL 2002 • NO CONCESSIONS ( E-RATE ) CEENet 2002

  14. Present Telecom Situation Source: PROF. V. K. SAMARANAYAKE, CINTEC • LEARN ACADEMIC NETWORK • 20 ISP's , 50,000 CONNECTIONS • CINTEC ACTS AS DOMAIN NAME REGISTRY FOR .lk • ISP ASSOCIATION TO ESTABLISH INTERNET SWITCH • E-MAIL & WEB SITES IN LOCAL LANGUAGES • CINTEC MAINTAINS NATIONAL WEB SITE • INTERNET ON RADIO & TV PROGRAMS • COMMUNITY RADIO & TELE CENTRES WITH INTERNET • LIVE ELECTION RESULTS ON INTERNET & TV SIMULTANEOUSLY • EXTENSIVE USE OF MULTI MEDIA CEENet 2002

  15. LEARN • The Lanka Educational Academic and Research Network (LEARN) interconnects Educational and R & D Institutions across the country. • Prior to the Sida project, LEARN interconnected 9 institutions at 64kbps and had the same bandwidth for an external link. • The Sida project aimed at increasing the bandwidth to already connected institutions, add new institutions to the network, and increase the external bandwidth. CEENet 2002

  16. Project Set-up • IT Infrastructure investments at University of Colombo, University of Peradeniya, University of Ruhuna, and National Aquatic Resources Research and Development Agency (NARA). • Institutional capacity building through split PhD programs. CEENet 2002

  17. Electronic Infrastructure • Campus-wide networks in Sri Lanka have been constructed at University of Colombo, University of Peradeniya, University of Ruhuna, and National Aquatic Resources Research and Development Agency (NARA). • In addition, a network connecting all Universities in Sri Lanka and some research institutions such as the National Science Foundation has been upgraded. CEENet 2002

  18. Electronic Infrastructure • A proposal to establish the Colombo University campus network in 1996. • fibre cable network, • equipment • UTP cabling • In 1998 under the infrastructure development project contribution was made to provide equipment and UTP cabling and also enhance the existing fibre cabling work. • The campus network covers all departments of the universities in the faculty of Arts, Science, Medicine, Law, Management and Finance, Education, Libraries and administrations and other units. CEENet 2002

  19. Electronic Infrastructure • University of Peradeniya. • Fibre optic cable network connecting all the faculties (campus backbone) • Fibre optic cable networks connecting all the buildings in the faculties of Engineering and Science, and some buildings in the other faculties • UTP cabling in all the buildings of the Faculties of Engineering (over 900 points) and Science (over 450 points) , Main Library ( 90 points) and the Senate buildings (over 140 points). Faculties of Agriculture, Arts, Dental Sciences, Medicine, and Vet. Medicine (over 50 points) CEENet 2002

  20. Electronic Infrastructure • University of Ruhuna. • Fibre optic cable network and UTP cabling connecting all the faculties (campus backbone) • Campus network switches and related infrastructure • The Department of Computer Science has received a big boost to its stock of equipment. • All servers have been replaced by more powerful new servers. • Set-up of a lab with multimedia supporting PCs. CEENet 2002

  21. Split PhD Program • By the end of 1999 8 Ph.D. Students from the Universities of Colombo, Moratuwa, Ruhuna and Peradeniya had commenced work. • 4 LicPh at present. • All other basically in phase with one exception. CEENet 2002

  22. Costs • Infrastructure: USD 2.5 M • PhD student/year: USD 32.000 CEENet 2002

  23. Benefits with Split PhD • Continuous contact with the home department. • Possibility of using international networks and participation in related projects. • Participating in projects of a wider range, beyond the PhD program. • Continued co-operation after finishing exam. • Other benefits for home departments. • Reduced risk for brain-drain. • Participation in local development and supervision. • Family issues. CEENet 2002

  24. Obstacles • A split PhD might imply absence from regular supervision contact. • Heavy work load at home departments. • Possible brain-drain. • Quite substantial costs. • Lack of personnel at home universities. • Lack of adequate supervision at home universities. • Family issues. CEENet 2002

  25. Conclusions • Reasonable IT infrastructure should be an investment of high priority. • General solutions for international bandwidth must be sought for. • This set-up should be the responsibility of the users. Do not involve external competence only. • An efficient organisation is a requirement. • A split PhD set-up seems to be of great importance as a mean for reducing brain-drain. • External universities is a valuable resource also for post doctoral collaboration. • Post PhD strategies should be taken into consideration. • National collaboration must be stimulated after PhD. • Observe that there are a lot of other ongoing very ambitious activities on Sri Lanka and elsewhere. Use synergies. CEENet 2002