Current Perspectives on English Teaching 复旦大学 邱东林. 1. 课程建设 2. 教学手段 3. 教学方法 4. 教学内容 5. 教材建设. 2. 教学手段 : 网络教学
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It is this feature, the combination of writing and speech, which led one prominent cognitive scientist to describe the Internet as bring about “ the fourth revolution in the means of production of knowledge,” on a par with the “ three prior revolution in the evolution of human communication and cognition: language, writing and print.” ( Harnad, 1992, p.1)
What is the principal role of computer? ( Warschauer , 2000)
To provide unlimited drill, practice, tutorial explanation and corrective feedback. (as tutor)
To provide language input and analytical and inferential tasks.( as pupil)
To provide alternative contexts for social interaction; to facilitate access to existing discourse communities and the creation of new ones. ( as tool)
competence and the purpose of interaction is to provide input
the activities with the aid of a computer
can increase input through teacher and textbook)
the same reading texts on the computer
1. rule-oriented instruction
2. meaning-oriented instruction ( perform best in comprehending)
3. control group
Q: How to measure “input”?
First language is minimized in electronic discussion
had from 2-3 times more turns and produced 2-4 times more sentences
and more words
more natural (after 6 month email exchange between a German learner and
1. an input-focused program with explicit grammatical instruction
2. an output-focused program with explicit grammatical instruction
conclusion: there are rules for output in SLA that are independent of input
1. text-based and computer-mediated
2. many-to-many communication:
the differences between CMC and face-to face communication: turn- taking; interruption, balance; agreement; decision-making
face-to- face: men made the first proposal
CMC: opinion tending to disagreement
1) Reducing social context clues (Sproull, Kiesler, 1991)
2) Reducing non-verbal clues ( Finholt, Kiesler, Sproull, 1986)
3) Allowing individual to contribute at their own time and space
1) percentage of student talk vs. teacher talk ( 85%-92%:35%-60%)
2) directional focus of student talk
3) equality of student participation
3. Time and place independent communication
1) It allows for more in-depth analysis and critical reflection
teacher outside the classroom
4. Long distance exchange
Tella (1991; 1992) conducted investigation of a semester-long exchange
between high school students in Finland and England:
1) teacher-centered, large-group---learner-centered, individualized
2) a shift from form to content
3) the whole writing process changed
4) the quality of writing improved
5) the modes of writing became more versatile
6) reading became more public and collaborative
5. Hypermedia information and student publishing
1) It provides access to up-to-date authentic information
2) It makes use of technologies to construct new knowledge
2. knowledge of correct response
3. answer until correct
Bationo (1992): the combination of written and spoken feedback was more effective for the immediate recall of the learning material. Subjects in the treatment group used significantly greater amount of conversational fillers, self-repair, hesitations and pauses than those in the control group.
Egbert (1996) : ideal language learning environment:
1. opportunities for learners to interact and negotiate
meaning with authentic audience
2. learners involved in authentic tasks which promote
exposure to and production of varied and creative
3. learners have opportunities to formulate ideas and
thought and intentional cognition is promoted
4. an atmosphere with ideal stress/ anxiety
Chaudron ( 1988) :
It would not be unreasonable to argue that a strict separation of behaviorist and constructivist interface is pedagogically unhelpful and that an effective CALL environment needs to offer different combination of interfaces to accommodate different learning styles as appropriate to different skills.
For normalisation to take place, CALL facilities will ideally not be separated from ‘normal’ teaching space….the classroom will ideally be organised so as to allow for an easy move from CALL activities to non-CALL activities.
B. Stakeholders’ conceptions, knowledge an abilities
If CALL is to be normalised, teachers and managers need to avoid the ‘technical fallacy’, namely the view that the main determinant of success or failure is the hardware and software, or any other single factor.
C. Syllabus and software integration
If asked to identify one crucial factor, we would emphasise syllabus integration. This for us means the need to integrate CALL into the syllabus in such a way that teachers are expected, as often as the facilities allow, to use computers in their teaching.
D. Training, developing and support
Recognition of the essential roles of the teacher and the learner and of the need for situationally relevant language pedagogy has brought about the decline of methods, with their specific philosophies and prescribed sets of classroom procedures.
The centrality of key learner variables, such as learning needs and goals, as well as cognitive processing and resources has been widely recognized in research and pedagogy. Investigations into the social, cultural, economic, and political contexts of L2 learning have provide much insight into populations of learners and their specific learning goals. (Eli Hinkel)
While TBI may successfully develop learners’ command of what is known, it is considerably less effective for the systematic teaching of new language. This is especially so where time is limited and out-of-class exposure unavailable, thus making heavily task-based programmes inappropriate for most of the world’s language learners.
Countless people seem to have learnt languages over the centuries through the kind of instruction currently condemned in the TBI literature. ( Michael Swan )
R. Ellis says: “ the rationale for task-based syllabuses is largely theoretical in nature, there being little empirical evidence to demonstrate that they are superior to linguistic syllabuses.”
The claim that traditional approaches have failed is not well founded… the naturalistic communication-driven pedagogy characteristic of TBI has serious limitations, esp. as regards the systematic teaching of new linguistic material. Its exclusive use is particularly unsuitable for exposure-poor contexts where time is limited. ( Michael Swan )
Currently, task-based and content-based instruction are probably among the most widely adopted integrated models. However, some leading specialists in L2 teaching and applied linguistics have maintained that the superiority of, for example, task-based instruction over traditional teaching has not been demonstrated empirically and that to date research has had little to say about its effectiveness. (Eli Hinkel)
1. The primary focus should be on ‘meaning’
2. There should be some kind of ‘gap’( a need to convey information, to
express meaning of utterances)
3. Learners should largely have to rely on their own resources (linguistic
and non-linguistic) in order to complete the activity
4. There is a clearly defined outcome other than the use of language ( the
language serves as the means for achieving the outcome, not as an end
in its own right)
1. The tasks must be tailored to the proficiency levels of the students.
2. Tasks need to be trialled to ensure that they result in appropriate L2 use
and revised in the light of experience.
3. For TBLT to work, teachers need a clear understanding of what a task is.
4. Teachers and students need to be made aware of the purpose and rationale for performing tasks.
5. Ideally, the teachers involved in teaching a task-based course must be
involved in the development of the task materials.
1. TBLT offers the opportunities for ‘natural’ learning inside the classroom.
2. It emphasizes meaning over form but also cater for learning form.
3. It affords learners a rich input of target language.
4. It is intrinsically motivating.
5. It is compatible with a learner-centred educational philosophy but also
allows for teacher input and direction.
6. It caters to the development of communicative fluency while not
7. It can be used alongside a more traditional approach.
* 语法正确, 语域恰当, 内容丰富, 表达自然
* communicative act (loop)
invitation (extending, accepting, refusing)
stating likes/dislikes (disagreeing, agreeing)
*In L2 listening pedagogy, two complementary approaches reflect current perspectives. One emphasizes the integrates teaching of listening for communication and in conjunction with other L2 skills, such as speaking, sociopragmatics, grammar, and vocabulary. The other moves to the foreground the learners’ use of metacognitive and cognitive strategies to booster the listening process. (Eli Hinkel)
metacognitive strategies: self management, self-monitoring, self-evaluation, selective attention, advance preparation
cognitive strategies: repetition, deduction, note-taking, translation, grouping, recombination
One reason may be that a lack of confidence in their decoding skills makes L2 listeners cautious about using incoming perceptual information to overrule interpretations already established. (John Field )
integrated course: book 4 , 5; listening and speaking : book 4, 5…
(altogether 5 times)
authentic : naturalness of language : false starts,
hesitation, stuttering, self correction,
loose sentences; filler…
real life experience
manageable (6 m)
1. to present the title together with three questions: What is it
about, when did it happen, What does the word “lucky” imply?
The Lucky Story of the Holiday Money (for brainstorming and
Purposes: to use top-down strategy; to create motivation
2. to provide critical words: without which any understanding of
the text would be impossible:
camping, border, folder, garage, traveler’s check, police
station, British consol, steal, window-ledge, mat, swing round
a corner, flow, change the note, split, half
3. to ask students to write a composition about 250 words, using as much as possible the key words ( check with the peer)
1. Why did the speaker stop at a garage?
2. Where did the speaker find that she lost the folder?
3. How much money was involved?
4. When did the story happen?
5. Why did the speaker think the woman sitting on a window-ledge stole her folder?
6. Why did the speaker worry when she was told that somebody
had found her folder?
7. How did the speaker thank the shop keeper?
8. How did the speaker lose the folder
Good heavens! (from the tape)
I was caught unaware.
It drops from the clouds.
It came from out of the blue.
You could have knocked me over with a feather.
It was a bolt from the blue.
“ On holiday one summer, we were camping, of course, er, and had been to Italy and, er, back into France, and, at the border, we had an awful lot trouble finding the passport and this and that…”
But you felt rich, because you’d got everything back.
Comprehensive English for Graduates
Lesson A Listening and Speaking
Part One Problems with US Education
Speaking: Spoken English vs. Written English;
Part Two Arts Education
Part Three Graduate Education
Lesson B Reading and Writing
Text A In Praise of the F Word
Text B Essence of Education
Question 1: Professor Gardner, what did you find in your studies to be the biggest difference between arts education in the United States and China? What struck you most, then?
Professor Gardner : I was so struck by the differences between arts education in the United States and arts education in China.
You don’t know what you’re talking about.
You don’t have a leg to stand on.
You don’t know the first thing about it.
You’re the way off the base.
You can lay that notion to rest.
You’ve got the facts wrong.
I don’t think you’ve got the facts straight.
Don’t jump to conclusion.
You see everything in black and white. (= in simple yes/ no terms)
That’s as different as day and night.
You’re just disagreeing to disagree.
You’re just playing the devil’s advocate.
Tens of thousands of 18-yeat-olds will graduate this year and be handed meaningless diplomas.
granted ( v.)
Tens of thousands of 18-yeat-olds will graduate this year and be granted meaningless diplomas.