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213 PHC Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry. 1 st lecture Dr. MOna Alshehri. Introduction. Chemicals make up everything we use or consume. The knowledge of the chemical composition of a substance is important in our daily lives.

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Presentation Transcript
slide3

Chemicals make up everything we use or consume.

  • The knowledge of the chemical composition of a substance is important in our daily lives.
  • Analytical chemistry plays an important role in all aspects (agricultural, clinical, environmental, forensic, manufacturing, and pharmaceutical).
  • Analytical chemistry consists of qualitative and quantitative analysis:
    • Qualitative analysis tells us what chemicals are present.
    • Quantitative analysis tells us how much.
by the end of this lecture the student should be able to
By the end of this lecture the student should be able to:
  • Describe the common acid-base theories.
  • Classify substances as acids and bases.
  • Understand acid-base equilibria in water.
slide7

Arrhenius Theory:

Acid

HA + H2O  H3O+ + A-

Base

B + H2O  BH+ + OH-

slide8

Bronsted-Lowry Theory:

acid = H+ + base

Acid  donate a proton

Base  accept a proton

slide9

Lewis Theory:

Electronic theory of acids and bases.

Acid  accept electron pair

Base  donate electron pair

AlCl3 + :OR2  Cl3Al:OR2

identify the acid and the base
Identify the acid and the base:
  • HCl + NaOH → NaCl + H2O
  • NH3 + H2O → NH4+ + OH−
  • C6H5NH2 + CH3COOH  C6H5NH3++ CH3COO-
  • CH3COOH + NH3 → NH+4 + CH3COO−
slide12

When an acid or base is dissolved in water, it will dissociate, or ionize.

  • A strong acid or base is completely ionized.
  • A weak acid or base is partially ionized.
slide13

e.g.

CH3COOH  H+ + CH3COO-

Ka = [H+] [CH3COO-] / [CH3COOH]

slide14

H2O  H+ + OH-

Kw = [H+] [OH-]

Kw = 1 x 10-14

summary
Summary:
  • Acid-Base Theories.
    • Arrhenius
    • Bronsted-Lowry
    • Lewis
  • Acid-Base Equilibria in water.